Polaris® Kinematic Mirror Mounts with Vertical-Drive Adjusters


  • Designed for Long-Term Stability
  • Patented Monolithic Flexure Arm Design for Minimal Optic Distortion
  • Right- and Left-Handed Versions Available

POLARIS-K15VS2

2-Adjuster Mirror Mount
for Ø1.5" Optics
with Vertical Drive

POLARIS-K2VS2

2-Adjuster Mirror Mount
for Ø2" Optics
with Vertical Drive

US Patents 10,101,559 & 11,320,621

POLARIS-K1VS2L

2-Adjuster Mirror Mount
for Ø1" Optics
with Vertical Drive

Related Items


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Using the POLARIS-K1VS2 Ø1" Mount:
A: POLARIS-T2 Tool for Adjusting POLARIS-LNS1 Collars
B: 5/64" or 2.0 mm Hex Key in the End of an Adjuster
C: POLARIS-N5 Removable Knobs on the Adjusters*
D: HKTS-5/64 Hex Knobs on the Adjusters
The adjustment tools listed above can be used with the other Polaris mounts on the page in a similar manner.

Click to Enlarge

POLARIS-K1VS2 Ø1" Mount Shown with Optional POLARIS-N5 Removable Knobs* (Not Included)

Features

  • Machined from Heat-Treated Stainless Steel with Low Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE)
  • Hardened Stainless Steel Ball Contacts with Sapphire Seats for Durability and Smooth Movement
  • Matched Actuator and Back Plate Provide Stability and Smooth Kinematic Adjustment
  • Extensive Testing Guarantees no more than 2 μrad Deviation after 12.5 °C Temperature Cycling (See Test Data Tab for Details)
  • Passivated Stainless Steel Surface Ideal for Vacuum and High-Power Laser Cavity Applications
  • Patented Optic Bore Design with Monolithic Flexure Arm (US Patent 10,101,559)
  • Patented Transverse Drive (US Patent 11,320,621) Provides Ultra Stable Kinematic Movement Via Hardened and Precision Finished Stainless Steel Components
  • Custom Mount Configurations are Available by Contacting Tech Support

Polaris® Low-Drift Kinematic Mirror Mounts are the ultimate solution for applications requiring stringent long-term alignment stability. The vertical drives incorporated in the mounts below are ideal for setups where there may not be space behind the mount for horizontal access to the adjusters, such as the interior of a laser cavity.

Optic Retention
These mounts feature a patented optic bore design with a monolithic flexure arm. This design provides high holding force and pointing stability with minimal optic distortion. For more details, please see the Test Data tab.

Polaris optic bores are precision machined to achieve a fit that provides optimum beam pointing stability over changing environmental conditions, such as temperature changes, transportation shock, and vibration. These vertical-drive mounts are specifically designed for Ø1", Ø1.5", or Ø2" optics. They can be customized with different faceplates, such as those used in our Ø25 mm or Ø50 mm mirror mounts, low-distortion optic retention mounts, or glue-in mounts. Please contact Tech Support with inquiries.

Product Highlight: Polaris Vertical Mirror Mount

Design
Machined from heat-treated stainless steel, Polaris mounts utilize precision-matched adjusters with ball contacts and sapphire seats to provide smooth kinematic adjustment. As shown on the Test Data tab, these mounts have undergone extensive testing to ensure high-quality performance. The Polaris design addresses all of the common causes of beam misalignment; please refer to the Design Features tab for detailed information.

Post Mounting
The Polaris mirror mounts are equipped with #8 (M4) counterbores for post mounting. Vertical-drive Polaris mirror mounts also include Ø2 mm alignment pin holes around the mounting counterbore, allowing for precision alignments when paired with our posts for Polaris mirror mounts.

Mounts can be custom-configured with the mounting and alignment pin holes on the adjacent side of the back plate, so that the adjusters are oriented horizontally. Please contact Tech Support with inquiries.

See the Usage Tips tab for more recommendations about mounting configurations.

Cleanroom and Vacuum Compatibility
All Polaris mounts sold below are designed to be compatible with cleanroom and vacuum applications. See the Specs tab and the Design Features tab for details.

*POLARIS-N5 Removable Knobs thread directly onto the exposed adjuster screws. Installing them on the Vertical Drive Mounts below may result in a reduced mechanical angular range.

Item # Suffixa -K1VS2 -K1VS2L -K15VS2 -K15VS2L -K2VS2 -K2VS2L
Optic Sizeb Ø1" Ø1.5" Ø2"
Mount Configuration Right-Handed Left-Handed Right-Handed Left-Handed Right-Handed Left-Handed
Optic Thickness (Min) 0.14" (3.5 mm) 0.24" (6.0 mm) 0.14" (3.5 mm)
Number of Adjusters Two Two Two
Adjuster Drive Vertical Drive
5/64" (2.0 mm) Hex
Vertical Drive
5/64" (2.0 mm) Hex
Vertical Drive
5/64" (2.0 mm) Hex
Adjuster Pitch 100 TPI 100 TPI 100 TPI
Actuator Matching Matched Actuator/Body Pairs Matched Actuator/Body Pairs Matched Actuator/Body Pairs
Measured Point-to-Point
Mechanical Resolution per Adjuster
(Bidirectional Repeatability)
5 µrad (Typical);
2 µrad (Achievable)
5 µrad (Typical);
2 µrad (Achievable)
5 µrad (Typical);
2 µrad (Achievable)
Adjustment per Revolutionc ~7.7 mrad/rev ~5.5 mrad/rev ~5 mrad/rev
Mechanical Angular Range (Nominal) ±4° ±3° ±3°
Front Plate Separation at Pivot Adjuster 3.175 mm (0.125") 3.175 mm (0.125") 3.175 mm (0.125")
Beam Deviationd After Thermal Cycling <1 μrad ≤1 μrad ≤2 μrad
Recommended Optic Mounting Torquee 5 - 7 oz-in for 6 mm Thick UVFS Optics 5 - 7 oz-in for 6 mm Thick UVFS Optics 4 - 6 oz-in for 12 mm Thick UVFS Optics
Mounting One #8 (M4) Counterbore One #8 (M4) Counterbore Three #8 (M4) Counterbores
Alignment Pin Holes Two at Each Mounting Facef
Vacuum Compatibilityg 10-9 Torr at 25 °C with Proper Bake Out
10-5 Torr at 25 °C without Bake Out
Grease Vapor Pressure: 10-13 Torr at 20 °C; 10-5 Torr at 200 °C
Epoxy Meets Low Outgassing Standards NASA ASTM E595, Telcordia GR-1221
Operating Temperature Range -30 to 200 °C
  • All item numbers in the Polaris line start with POLARIS.
  • For best performance, use optics with a diameter tolerance of no greater than zero for the POLARIS-K1VS2(L) Ø1" mount and up to +0/-0.1 mm for the POLARIS-K15VS2(L) Ø1.5" mount and
    POLARIS-K2VS2(L) Ø2" mount
  • When the front plate is parallel to the back plate.
  • After a 12.5 °C temperature cycle, the beam returns to within this angle of its original position for a Polaris mounted on a Ø1" post with a 2" beam height. Please see the Test Data tab for more details.
  • The optimal optic mounting torque can vary by ±1 oz-in due to variations in optic diameter and tolerance buildup.
  • Standard DIN 7-m6 ground dowel pins are recommended. The recommended tolerance for the location of the mating dowel pin holes and threaded mounting hole is ±0.003".
  • Vacuum-compatible Polaris mounts are assembled in a clean environment, chemically cleaned using the Carpenter AAA passivation method to remove sulfur, iron, and contaminants from the surface, and double vacuum bagged. The 8-32 and M4 cap screws included with the Polaris mounts are not rated for pressures below 10-5 Torr. Prior to placing any components in a sensitive vacuum system, a thorough pre-baking in a bake-out oven should be performed to remove all moisture and surface volatiles. Contact Tech Support for details.

Polaris Mirror Mounts Test Data

All of the Polaris Low-Drift Kinematic Mirror Mounts have undergone extensive testing to ensure high-quality performance. Thermal Shock testing confirms the exceptional stability of the mounts and demonstrates that they reliably return to their initial position after a transient temperature shift. Interferometric wavefront distortion testing demonstrates the ability of Polaris mounts to secure an optic without significantly distorting the optical surface.



Vibration Testing for Polaris Mounts (Ø19 mm Polaris Mount Shown)

Vibration Testing

Purpose: This testing was done to determine how reliably Polaris mirror mounts behave when subjected to intense physical vibrations.

Procedure: A pair of identical POLARIS-K1S4 mirror mounts were mounted on Ø1" Posts for Polaris Mirror Mounts and secured to a stainless steel breadboard with POLARIS-CA1 clamping arms. Laser beams were reflected from the mirrors onto two position sensing detectors, located on the same breadboard. The entire platform was vibrated with a variable frequency and amplitude and the displacement of the beam on the detector was recorded. The two beam paths were oriented at right angles so that the vibrational motion was in a direction parallel to the face of one mount and perpendicular to the face of the other. Please see the video to the right for a demonstration of our Polaris vibration test (the mount shown in the video is the POLARIS-K19S4).

Results: When subjected to vibrational frequencies as high as 100 Hz and accelerations as high as 6 g, the POLARIS-K1S4 mounts remained mechanically sound. The angular position of the mounts remained stable within about 10 µrad for both parallel and perpendicular vibrations.

Conclusions: Our POLARIS-K1S4 Ø1" Polaris mirror mounts provide exceptional performance, even under rugged operating conditions. As a result, these mounts are ideal for use in systems that require the greatest degree of stability when vibrational noise is expected. Vertical-drive Polaris mounts share all of the relevant design aspects of the tested mount.


Positional Repeatability After Thermal Shock

Purpose: This testing was done to determine how reliably the mount returns the mirror, without hysteresis, to its initial position. These measurements show that the alignment of the optical system is unaffected by the temperature shock.

Procedure: After mounting the Polaris to a Ø1" Post, the mirror and post assembly was secured to a stainless steel optical table in a temperature-controlled environment. The mirror was held using the flexure mechanism; see the Usage Tips tab for additional mounting recommendations. A beam from an independently temperature-stabilized laser diode was reflected by the mirror onto a position sensing detector. The temperature of each mirror mount tested was raised to at least 37 °C. The elevated temperature was maintained in order to soak the mount at a constant temperature. Then the temperature of the mirror mount was returned to the starting temperature. The results of these tests are shown below.

Results: As can be seen in the plots below, when the Polaris mounts were returned to their initial temperature, the angular position (both pitch and yaw) of the mirrors returned to within 1 µrad of its initial position for our Ø1" mounts and within 2 µrad for our Ø2" mounts. The best result achieved with a competitor’s mount was significantly worse than the Polaris mounts. The performance of the Polaris was tested further by subjecting the mount to repeated temperature change cycles. After each cycle, the mirror’s position reliably returned to within 1 µrad of its initial position for the POLARIS-K1VS2(L) Ø1" mount and within 2 µrad for the POLARIS-K2VS2(L) Ø2" mount.

Conclusions: The Polaris Mirror Mounts are high-quality, ultra-stable mounts that will reliably return a mirror to its original position after cycling through a temperature change. As a result, the Polaris mounts are ideal for use in applications that require long-term alignment stability.

POLARIS-K1VS2 and POLARIS-K1VS2L 2-Adjuster Mounts, Monolithic Optic Retention, Vertical Drive
POLARIS-K1VS2 Thermal Data
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Thermal Repeatability for Ø1", 2-Adjuster POLARIS-K1VS2 Mirror Mount. The POLARIS-K1VS2L behaves in a similar manner.
Polaris-K1VS2 Thermal Shock Tests
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The plot above shows the final angular position of the POLARIS-K1VS2 for 10 consecutive thermal shock tests. The change in temperature is the difference between the starting temperature and the temperature at the end of the test and includes factors such as the variation in room and mount temperature. The POLARIS-K1VS2L behaves in a similar manner.
POLARIS-K1VS2 Thermal Data
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Thermal Repeatability for Ø1", 2-Adjuster POLARIS-K1VS2 Mirror Mount. The POLARIS-K1VS2L behaves in a similar manner.
Polaris-K1VS2 Thermal Shock Tests
Click to Enlarge

The plot above shows the final angular position of the POLARIS-K1VS2 for 10 consecutive thermal shock tests. The change in temperature is the difference between the starting temperature and the temperature at the end of the test and includes factors such as the variation in room and mount temperature. The POLARIS-K1VS2L behaves in a similar manner.
POLARIS-K2VS2 and POLARIS-K2VS2L 2-Adjuster Mounts, Monolithic Optic Retention, Vertical Drive
POLARIS-K2VS2 and POLARIS-K2VS2L Thermal Data
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Thermal Repeatability for Ø2", 2-Adjuster POLARIS-K2VS2 Mirror Mount. The POLARIS-K2VS2L behaves in a similar manner.
Polaris-K2VS2 Thermal Shock Tests
Click to Enlarge

The plot above shows the final angular position of the POLARIS-K2VS2 for 20 consecutive thermal shock tests. The change in temperature is the difference between the starting temperature and the temperature at the end of the test and includes factors such as the variation in room and mount temperature. The POLARIS-K2VS2L behaves in a similar manner.

Optical Distortion Testing Using a ZYGO Phase-Shifting Interferometer

Mounting stresses are responsible for the strain that results in optical surface distortion. Minimizing distortion effects is crucial; any distortion to the optic affects the reflected wavefront. Many of our Polaris mounts, including the Ø1", Ø1.5", and Ø2" optic mounts below, feature a monolithic flexure arm that is designed to provide maximum stability while minimizing optic distortion.

To determine the amount of optic distortion exerted on the mirror by the flexure arm, a ZYGO Phase-Shifting Interferometer was used to measure the wavefront distortion at different torque values (see the images below). Based on results of the tests seen below, we recommend a torque of 5 - 7 oz-in for our Ø1" and Ø1.5" Polaris mounts and a torque of 4 - 6 oz-in for our Ø2" Polaris mounts.

Please note that the optimal optic mounting torque can vary by ±1 oz-in due to variations in optic diameter and tolerance buildup.

Procedure:
A broadband dielectric mirror was installed into a Polaris mount using the setscrew to clamp down the flexure arm. Measurements of the optic distortion were then recorded using the ZYGO interferometer. Once each measurement was complete, the amount of force needed to push the optic out of the mount was measured to check optic retention. The wavefront distortion values shown here give peak-to-valley distortion across the entire optic, representing the worst-case scenario; the center of the optic exhibits significantly less distortion than the edge.

Results for Ø1" Mount with Monolithic Optic Retention Arm:
This test was performed using the POLARIS-K1S4 Ø1" Polaris Mount, which uses a front plate with the same optic retention mechanism as the POLARIS-K1VS2 and POLARIS-K1VS2L Ø1" Vertical-Drive Mounts. As seen in the table below, the peak-to-valley wavefront distortion was found to be ≤0.1λ when 5 - 7 oz-in of torque was applied to the setscrew of the POLARIS-K1S4 Ø1" mount.

POLARIS-K1S4 Optical Distortion Test Data
Torque (oz-in)a Wavefront Distortion (Peak to Valley)b
(Click for Example Zygo Screenshot)
Push-Out Force (lbf)c
4.5 0.072λ to 0.093λ >12
5 0.047λ to 0.090λ
5.5 0.057λ to 0.097λ
6 0.085λ to 0.100λ
6.5 0.057λ to 0.073λ
7 0.059λ to 0.067λ
7.5 0.083λ to 0.092λ
8 0.128λ to 0.145λ
8.5 0.102λ to 0.117λ
9 0.141λ to 0.162λ
10 0.188λ to 0.224λ
  • The recommended optic mounting torque range is indicated by the green highlighted rows.
  • Wavefront distortion measurements were performed at λ = 633 nm. The Zygo interferometer aperture outer diameter was set to 80% for these measurements. These values represent the minimum and maximum values over multiple independent tests.
  • Push-out force is the force required to move the mounted optic at the given torque value.

Click to Enlarge

POLARIS-K1S4 Wavefront Distortion for Setscrew Torque of 7 oz-in (See Table to the Right for Other Setscrew Torques)

Results for Ø1.5" Mount with Monolithic Optic Retention Arm:
This test was performed using the POLARIS-K15S4 Ø1.5" Polaris Mount, which uses a front plate with the same optic retention mechanism as the POLARIS-K15VS2 and POLARIS-K15VS2L Ø1.5" Vertical-Drive Mounts. As seen in the table below, the peak-to-valley wavefront distortion was found to be ≤0.173λ when 5 - 7 oz-in of torque was applied to the setscrew of the POLARIS-K15S4 Ø1.5" mount.

POLARIS-K15S4 Optical Distortion Test Data
Torque (oz-in)a Wavefront Distortion (Peak to Valley)b
(Click for Example Zygo Screenshot)
Push-Out Force (lbf)c
Unmounted 0.083λ >12
4 0.108λ
5 0.165λ
6 0.137λ
7 0.173λ
8 0.175λ
9 0.281λ
10 0.302λ
  • The recommended optic mounting torque range is indicated by the green highlighted rows.
  • Wavefront distortion measurements were performed at λ = 633 nm. The Zygo interferometer aperture outer diameter was set to 80% for these measurements.
  • Push-out force is the force required to move the mounted optic at the given torque value.

Click to Enlarge

POLARIS-K15S4 Wavefront Distortion for Setscrew Torque of 7 oz-in (See Table to the Right for Other Setscrew Torques)

Results for Ø2" Mount with Monolithic Optic Retention Arm:
This test was performed using the POLARIS-K2 Ø2" Polaris Mount, which uses a front plate with the same optic retention mechanism as the POLARIS-K2VS2 and POLARIS-K2VS2L Ø2" Vertical-Drive Mounts. As seen in the table below, the peak-to-valley wavefront distortion was found to be ≤0.1λ when 4 - 6 oz-in of torque was applied to the setscrew of the POLARIS-K2 Ø2" mount.

POLARIS-K2 Optical Distortion Test Data
Torque (oz-in)a Wavefront Distortion (Peak to Valley)b
(Click for Example Zygo Screenshot)
Push-Out Force (lbf)c
4 0.075λ to 0.090λ >12
5 0.076λ to 0.091λ
6 0.089λ to 0.100λ
7 0.115λ to 0.121λ
8 0.128λ to 0.139λ
9 0.172λ to 0.180λ
10 0.171λ to 0.182λ
  • The recommended optic mounting torque range is indicated by the green highlighted rows.
  • Wavefront distortion measurements were performed at λ = 633 nm. The Zygo interferometer aperture outer diameter was set to 90% for these measurements. These values represent the minimum and maximum values over multiple independent tests.
  • Push-out force is the force required to move the mounted optic at the given torque value.

Click to Enlarge

POLARIS-K2 Wavefront Distortion for Setscrew Torque of 5 oz-in (See Table to the Right for Other Setscrew Torques)

Click to Enlarge

Design Features of the Polaris Vertical-Drive Mounts

Several common factors typically lead to beam misalignment in an optical setup. These include temperature-induced hysteresis of the mirror's position, crosstalk, drift, and backlash. Polaris mirror mounts are designed specifically to minimize these misalignment factors and thus provide extremely stable performance. Hours of extensive research, multiple design efforts using sophisticated design tools, and months of rigorous testing went into choosing the best components to provide an ideal solution for experiments requiring ultra-stable performance from a kinematic mirror mount.

Thermal Hysteresis
The temperature in most labs is not constant due to factors such as air conditioning, the number of people in the room, and the operating states of equipment. Thus, it is necessary that all mounts used in an alignment-sensitive optical setup be designed to minimize any thermally induced alignment effects. Thermal effects can be minimized by choosing materials with a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), like stainless steel. However, even mounts made from a material with a low CTE do not typically return the mirror to its initial position when the initial temperature is restored. All the critical components of the Polaris mirror mounts are heat treated prior to assembly since this process removes internal stresses that can cause a temperature-dependent hysteresis. As a result, the alignment of the optical system will be restored when the temperature of the mirror mount is returned to the initial temperature.

The method by which the mirror is secured in the mount is another important design factor; these Polaris mounts offer excellent performance without the use of adhesives or setscrews. Setscrews, while commonly used by themselves for securing optics in other mounts, tend to move as the temperature changes. These Polaris mounts use a monolithic flexure arm to hold the edge of the optic, further reducing both sensitivity to fluctuations in temperature and distortion on the optic surface.

Crosstalk
Crosstalk is minimized by carefully controlling the dimensional tolerances of the front and back plates of the mount so that the pitch and yaw actuators are orthogonal. In addition, sapphire seats are used at all three contact points. Standard metal-to-metal actuator contact points will wear down over time. The polished sapphire seats of the Polaris mounts, in conjunction with the hardened stainless steel actuator tips, maintain the integrity of the contact surfaces over time.

Drift and Backlash
In order to minimize the positional drift of the mirror mount and backlash, it is necessary to limit the amount of play in the adjuster as well as the amount of lubricant used. When an adjustment is made to the actuator, the lubricant will be squeezed out of some spaces and built up in others. This non-equilibrium distribution of lubricant will slowly relax back into an equilibrium state. However, in doing so, this may cause the position of the front plate of the mount to move. The Polaris mounts use adjusters matched to the body or bushings that exceed all industry standards so very little adjuster lubricant is needed. As a result, alignment of the Polaris mounts is extremely stable even after being adjusted (see the Test Data tab for more information). In addition, these adjusters have a smooth feel that allows the user to make small, repeatable adjustments.

Double Vacuum Bagging for Polaris Mounts
Click to Enlarge

All Vacuum Compatible Polaris Mounts are Shipped Inside Two Vacuum Bag Layers

Cleanroom and Vacuum Compatibility
All Polaris mounts sold below are designed to be compatible with cleanroom and vacuum applications. Vacuum compatible mounts are chemically cleaned using the Carpenter AAA passivation method to remove sulfur, iron, and contaminants from the surface. After passivation, they are assembled in a clean environment and double vacuum bagged to eliminate contamination when transported into a cleanroom.

All vacuum compatible Polaris mounts have sapphire contacts bonded into place using a NASA-approved low outgassing procedure. In addition, DuPont Krytox® LVP High-Vacuum Grease, an ultra-high-vacuum-compatible, low outgassing PTFE grease, is applied to the adjusters. Please note that the 8-32 and M4 cap screws included with the Polaris mounts are not rated for pressures below 10-5 Torr.

Each vacuum-compatible Polaris mount is packaged within two vacuum bag layers after assembly in a clean environment, as seen in the image to the right. These vacuum bags do not contain any desiccant materials and tightly wrap the mount, preventing friction against the mount during shipping. This packing method protects the mount from corrosion, gas or liquid contamination, and particulates during transport. The first vacuum bag should be opened in a clean environment while the second vacuum bag should only be opened just prior to installation. When operating at pressures below 10-5 Torr, we highly recommend using an appropriate bake out procedure prior to installing the mount in order to minimize contamination caused by outgassing.

Through thermal changes and vibrations, the Polaris® kinematic mirror mounts are designed to provide years of use. Below are some usage tips to ensure the Polaris Vertical-Drive Mounts provide optimal performance.

Match Materials
Due to its relatively low coefficient of thermal expansion, stainless steel was chosen as the material from which to fabricate the front and back plates of these Polaris mounts. When mounting, we recommend using components fabricated from the same material, such as our Ø1" Posts for Polaris Mirror Mounts and Polaris Clamping Arms.

Use a Wide Post
To optimize the performance of these Polaris mounts, they should be used with our Ø1" Posts and our Polaris Clamping Arms. These posts are made of stainless steel and provide two lines of contact with the mount, which help confine the bottom of the mount during variations in the surrounding temperature, thereby minimizing potential alignment issues.

Optic Mounting
Since an optic is prone to movement within its mounting bore, all optics should be mounted with the Polaris out of the setup to ensure accurate mounting that will minimize misalignment effects. We recommend using a torque wrench when installing an optic in the Polaris mounts. Over torquing the flexure-spring optic retainer can result in dramatic surface distortions.

Front Plate’s Position
The Ø1" Polaris Mounts below are designed to allow adjustments up to 8°, and the Ø1.5" and Ø2" mounts adjustments up to 6°. To achieve the best performance, it is recommended that the front plate be kept as parallel as possible to the back plate. This ensures the highest stability of the adjustments.

Mount as Close to the Table’s Surface as Possible
To minimize the impact of vibrations and temperature changes, it is recommended that your setup has as low of a profile as possible. Using short posts will reduce the Y-axis translation caused by temperature variations and will minimize any movements caused by vibrations. Mount the Polaris directly onto a flat surface such as a breadboard using a 1/4"-20 to 8-32 thread adapter (AE8E25E) or M6 x 1.0 to M4 x 0.7 adapter (AE4M6M). By doing so, the instability introduced by a post will be eliminated.

Polish and Clean the Points of Contact
We highly recommend that the points of contact between the mount and the post, as well as the post and the table, are clean and free of scratches or defects. For best results, we recommend using a polishing stone to clean the table’s surface and a LFG1P polishing pad for the top and bottom of the post as well as the bottom of the mount.

Use Polaris-Specific Adjustment Tools
For securing POLARIS-LNS1 locking collars (such as on vertical-drive adjusters), we recommend using the POLARIS-T2 spanner wrench; the TW13 torque wrench can be used in combination with the spanner wrench for long-term locking. These wrenches are chemically cleaned and compatible with cleanroom and vacuum chamber applications. We also offer POLARIS-N5 stainless steel knobs, which are compatible with our Polaris Vertical-Drive Mounts; however, the addition of the knobs may reduce the angular adjustment range of the vertical drive mount.

Not Recommended
We do not recommend taking the adjusters out of the back plate, as it can contaminate the threading. This can reduce the fine adjustment performance significantly. Additionally, do not over-loosen the adjusters. Once the back plate stops moving, do not continue to turn the adjuster in the same direction; doing so may permanently damage the mount. Also, do not pull the front plate away as it might stretch the springs beyond their operating range or crack the sapphire seats. If you experience any issues related to the afformentioned warnings, please contact Tech Support for assistance.


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Polaris Mount Optic Retention Methods (Click Image to Enlarge)
Side Lock SM Threaded Low Distortion Glue In
Polaris Mount Adjuster Types (Click Image for Details)
Side Hole Hex Adjuster Knobs Adjuster
Lock Nuts
Piezo Adjusters Vertical-Drive Adjusters

Thorlabs offers several different general varieties of Polaris mounts, including kinematic side optic retention, SM-threaded, low optic distortion, piezo-actuated, vertical drive, and glue-in optic mounts, as well as a fixed monolithic mirror mount and fixed optic mounts. Click to expand the tables below and see our complete line of Polaris mounts, listed by optic bore size, and then arranged by optic retention method and adjuster type. We also offer a line of accessories that have been specifically designed for use with our Polaris mounts; these are listed in the table immediately below.

If your application requires a mirror mount design that is not available below, please contact Tech Support.
Polaris Mounts for Ø1/2" Optics

Polaris Mounts for Ø19 mm (3/4") Optics

Polaris Mounts for Ø25 mm Optics

Polaris Mounts for Ø1" Optics

Polaris Mounts for Ø1.5" Optics

Polaris Mounts for Ø50 mm Optics

Polaris Mounts for Ø2" Optics

Polaris Mounts for Ø3" Optics

Polaris Mounts for Ø4" Optics

Polaris Mounts for Ø6" Optics

Polaris Kinematic Platform Mount

Polaris® Ø1" Kinematic Mirror Mounts, 2 Vertical-Drive Adjusters, Monolithic Optic Retention

  • Designed for use with Ø1" Opticsa
  • ±4° Mechanical Angular Range
  • ~7.7 mrad/rev Resolution
  • 100 TPI Matched Actuator/Body Pairs
  • Less than 1 µrad Deviation after Temperature Cycling (See the Test Data Tab for Details)
  • Right- and Left-Handed Versions Available

These 2-Adjuster Ø1" Polaris Kinematic Mirror Mounts provide long-term stability and high-resolution adjustment using vertical drives. This design allows for adjustment in situations where there may not be space behind the mount for horizontal access to the adjusters. The monolithic front plate and stiff springs used make these mounts ideal for OEM applications that require reliable operation in rugged environments.

To secure an optic, the mounts use a monolithic flexure arm that can be actuated using a 0.05" (1.3 mm) hex key. The monolithic flexure arm design keeps wavefront distortion on the mounted optic to a minimum while providing strong optic retention force (see the Test Data tab for details).

The 100 TPI adjusters feature a 5/64" (2.0 mm) hex and may be adjusted with our HKTS-5/64 Hex Key Thumbscrews, the hex on the end of the SA1 Adjustment Tool, or any other 5/64" (2.0 mm) hex wrench. Alternatively, POLARIS-N5 removable, low-profile adjustment knobs can be threaded onto the adjusters for improved feel in fine-resolution adjustments, although mechanical angular range of the mount may be reduced.

The adjusters on these mounts can be locked using the POLARIS-LNS1 locking collars. Two are pre-installed on the mounts, one for each adjuster. The included locking collars can be loosened or tightened most easily using the POLARIS-T2 spanner wrench. The spanner wrench has a hole through its center which accepts a 5/64" (2.0 mm) hex key, allowing the adjuster to be held in place while the locking collar is tightened.

Post mounting is provided by a #8 (M4) counterbore. For custom mounting configurations, two Ø2 mm alignment pin holes are located on each mounting face for setting a precise location and mounting angle. Standard DIN 7-m6 ground dowel pins are recommended (click on the red documents icon below for details). We recommend using these mounts with stainless steel posts that also have Ø2 mm alignment pin holes, such as our Ø1" Posts for Polaris Mirror Mounts.

Mounts can be also be customized with different face plates, such as those used in our in our low-distortion optic retention mounts, or with back plates that have mounting and alignment pin holes on the adjacent side so that the adjusters are oriented horizontally. Please contact Tech Support with inquiries.

a. Please note that these mounts are designed for Ø1" optics. If this mount is used with a Ø25 mm optic, or an optic with an outer diameter tolerance greater than zero, then performance will be diminished. Vertical-drive mounts for Ø25 mm optics are available by contacting Tech Support.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available
POLARIS-K1VS2 Support Documentation
POLARIS-K1VS2Polaris® Right-Handed Ø1" Mirror Mount, 2 Vertical-Drive Hex Adjusters, Monolithic Optic Retention
$358.75
7-10 Days
POLARIS-K1VS2L Support Documentation
POLARIS-K1VS2LPolaris® Left-Handed Ø1" Mirror Mount, 2 Vertical-Drive Hex Adjusters, Monolithic Optic Retention
$358.75
Lead Time

Polaris® Ø1.5" Kinematic Mirror Mounts, 2 Vertical-Drive Adjusters, Monolithic Optic Retention

  • Designed for use with Ø1.5" Opticsa
  • ±3° Mechanical Angular Range
  • ~5.5 mrad/rev Resolution
  • 100 TPI Matched Actuator/Body Pairs
  • No More than 1 µrad Deviation after Temperature Cycling
  • Right and Left-Handed Versions Available

These 2-Adjuster Ø1.5" Polaris Kinematic Mirror Mounts provide long-term stability and high-resolution adjustment using vertical drives. This design allows for adjustment in situations where there may not be space behind the mount for horizontal access to the adjusters. The monolithic front plate and stiff springs used make these mounts ideal for OEM applications that require reliable operation in rugged environments.

To secure an optic, each mount uses a monolithic flexure arm that can be actuated using a 0.05" (1.3 mm) hex key. The monolithic flexure arm design keeps wavefront distortion on the mounted optic to a minimum while providing strong optic retention force (see the Test Data tab for details).

The 100 TPI adjusters feature a 5/64" (2.0 mm) hex and may be adjusted with our HKTS-5/64 Hex Key Thumbscrews, the hex on the end of the SA1 Adjustment Tool, or any other 5/64" (2.0 mm) hex wrench. Alternatively, POLARIS-N5 removable, low-profile adjustment knobs can be threaded onto the adjusters for improved feel in fine-resolution adjustments, although mechanical angular range of the mount may be reduced.

The adjusters on these mounts can be locked using the POLARIS-LNS1 locking collars. Two are pre-installed on the mounts, one for each adjuster. The included locking collars can be loosened or tightened most easily using the POLARIS-T2 spanner wrench. The spanner wrench has a hole through its center which accepts a 5/64" (2.0 mm) hex key, allowing the adjuster to be held in place while the locking collar is tightened.

Post mounting is provided by a #8 (M4) counterbore. For custom mounting configurations, two Ø2 mm alignment pin holes are located on each mounting face for setting a precise location and mounting angle. Standard DIN 7-m6 ground dowel pins are recommended (click on the red documents icon below for details). We recommend using these mounts with stainless steel posts that also have Ø2 mm alignment pin holes, such as our Ø1" Posts for Polaris Mirror Mounts

Mounts can be also be customized with different face plates, such as those used in our in our low-distortion optic retention mounts, or with back plates that have mounting and alignment pin holes on the adjacent side so that the adjusters are oriented horizontally. Please contact Tech Support with inquiries.

a. Please note that these mounts are designed for Ø1.5" optics with an outer diameter tolerance of +0/-0.1 mm. Use of optics which fall outside these dimensions may result in diminished performance.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available
POLARIS-K15VS2 Support Documentation
POLARIS-K15VS2NEW!Polaris® Right-Handed Ø1.5" Mirror Mount, 2 Vertical-Drive Hex Adjusters, Monolithic Optic Retention
$600.00
Today
POLARIS-K15VS2L Support Documentation
POLARIS-K15VS2LNEW!Polaris® Left-Handed Ø1.5" Mirror Mount, 2 Vertical-Drive Hex Adjusters, Monolithic Optic Retention
$600.00
Today

Polaris® Ø2" Kinematic Mirror Mounts, 2 Vertical-Drive Adjusters, Monolithic Optic Retention

  • Designed for use with Ø2" Opticsa
  • ±3° Mechanical Angular Range
  • ~5 mrad/rev Resolution
  • 100 TPI Matched Actuator/Body Pairs
  • No More than 2 µrad Deviation after Temperature Cycling (See the Test Data Tab for Details)
  • Right and Left-Handed Versions Available

These 2-Adjuster Ø2" Polaris Kinematic Mirror Mounts provide long-term stability and high-resolution adjustment using vertical drives. This design allows for adjustment in situations where there may not be space behind the mount for horizontal access to the adjusters. The monolithic front plate and stiff springs used make these mounts ideal for OEM applications that require reliable operation in rugged environments.

To secure an optic, each mount uses a monolithic flexure arm that can be actuated using a 0.05" (1.3 mm) hex key. The monolithic flexure arm design keeps wavefront distortion on the mounted optic to a minimum while providing strong optic retention force (see the Test Data tab for details).

The 100 TPI adjusters feature a 5/64" (2.0 mm) hex and may be adjusted with our HKTS-5/64 Hex Key Thumbscrews, the hex on the end of the SA1 Adjustment Tool, or any other 5/64" (2.0 mm) hex wrench. Alternatively, POLARIS-N5 removable, low-profile adjustment knobs can be threaded onto the adjusters for improved feel in fine-resolution adjustments, although mechanical angular range of the mount may be reduced.

The adjusters on these mounts can be locked using the POLARIS-LNS1 locking collars. Two are pre-installed on the mounts, one for each adjuster. The included locking collars can be loosened or tightened most easily using the POLARIS-T2 spanner wrench. The spanner wrench has a hole through its center which accepts a 5/64" (2.0 mm) hex key, allowing the adjuster to be held in place while the locking collar is tightened.

Post mounting is provided by three #8 (M4) counterbores. For custom mounting configurations, two Ø2 mm alignment pin holes are located on the mounting face for setting a precise location and mounting angle. Standard DIN 7-m6 ground dowel pins are recommended (click on the red documents icon below for details). We recommend using these mounts with stainless steel posts that also have Ø2 mm alignment pin holes, such as our Ø1" Posts for Polaris Mirror Mounts.

Mounts can be also be customized with different face plates, such as those used in our in our low-distortion optic retention mounts, or with back plates that have mounting and alignment pin holes on the adjacent side so that the adjusters are oriented horizontally. Please contact Tech Support with inquiries.

a. Please note that these mounts are designed for Ø2" optics with an outer diameter tolerance of +0/-0.1 mm and are not intended for use with the Ø50 mm metric mirror size. Vertical-drive mounts for Ø50 mm optics are available by contacting Tech Support.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available
POLARIS-K2VS2 Support Documentation
POLARIS-K2VS2Polaris® Right-Handed Ø2" Mirror Mount, 2 Vertical-Drive Hex Adjusters, Monolithic Optic Retention
$717.50
Lead Time
POLARIS-K2VS2L Support Documentation
POLARIS-K2VS2LPolaris® Left-Handed Ø2" Mirror Mount, 2 Vertical-Drive Hex Adjusters, Monolithic Optic Retention
$717.50
Lead Time

1/4"-100 Adjuster Locking Collar for Polaris® Mounts

  • Provides Long Term Adjuster Stability
  • Compatible with Select Polaris Mounts
  • Low Profile: Ø0.33" (Ø8.4 mm) x 0.08" (1.9 mm) Thick
  • Tighten Along Rotational Axis Using the POLARIS-T2 Spanner Wrench
  • TW13 Torque Wrench
    • Has a Preset Torque Value of 32 oz-in (0.23 N•m)
    • Break-Over Design Ensures Proper Torque is Applied

This locking collar is compatible with Polaris mounts that have 1/4"-100 adjusters, excluding the piezo-driven mounts and mounts with low-profile adjusters (Item #s POLARIS-K1-H and POLARIS-K1-2AH). Designed for long-term adjuster stability or applications that are exposed to shock and vibration, these locking collars are pre-greased with the same ultra-high-vacuum-compatible, low-outgassing PTFE grease as the Polaris mounts and have been tested for adjuster fit.

The POLARIS-T2 spanner wrench has been specifically designed for use in securing the POLARIS-LNS1 locking collar. The double spanner head enables complete engagement while the design allows locking collar adjustments to be along the same line as the adjuster itself. A center through hole allows a 2 mm ball driver to pass through the spanner wrench, so that the adjuster can be held in position while the locking collar is engaged.

For applications that require frequent tuning of the adjusters, the locking collar only needs to be lightly tightened to a torque of approximately 4 to 8 oz-in (0.03 to 0.06 N·m). For long term stability, we recommend tightening to a torque of 32 oz-in, which can be achieved by using our TW13 preset torque wrench (sold below) in combination with the POLARIS-T2 spanner wrench. To avoid cross threading the locking collar, place it against the adjuster and "unscrew" the collar until you feel a slight drop; then thread the collar onto the adjuster.

The TW13 13 mm Hex Torque Wrench has a preset torque value of 32 oz-in and is compatible with the POLARIS-T2 spanner wrench, POLARIS-LN1 lock nut, and POLARIS-LN4 lock nut. When the preset torque value has been achieved, the break-over design will cause the pivoting joint to "break." The wrench's hex head will move back into place once the force is removed. This design prevents excess force from being applied to the lock nut.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Imperial Price Available
POLARIS-LNS1 Support Documentation
POLARIS-LNS11/4"-100 Locking Collar, Stainless Steel
$10.25
Today
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available
POLARIS-T2 Support Documentation
POLARIS-T2Spanner Wrench for POLARIS-LNS1 Locking Collar
$51.25
Today
TW13 Support Documentation
TW13Customer Inspired! 13 mm Preset Torque Wrench for Polaris Lock Nuts, 32 oz-in
$120.66
7-10 Days

Removable Knob for 1/4"-100 Adjusters


Click to Enlarge

POLARIS-K1C4 Mount with Optic and Optional POLARIS-N5 Removable Knobs
  • For Convenient Adjustment of 1/4"-100 Adjusters
  • Attaches Directly to Adjuster Threading
  • Sold Individually

The Polaris® Removable Knobs for 1/4"-100 Adjusters allows the user to adjust a Polaris kinematic mirror mount by hand. The knobs can be used with select Polaris mounts, listed in the table to the right. Note that when the knobs are used with any of these mounts, they will block the side through holes on the adjuster. The adjuster screw's 5/64" (2 mm) hex socket is still usable when the knobs are attached.

The knobs are made from chemically cleaned and heat-treated 303 stainless steel that provides vacuum compatibility down to 10-9 Torr at 25 °C with proper bake out (10-5 Torr at 25 °C without bake out).

POLARIS-K1C4 and POLARIS-K1S4 Mounts purchased before September 21, 2016 cannot be used with the POLARIS-N5 Removable Knobs sold here.
To order compatible knobs, please contact Tech Support.
Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available
POLARIS-N5 Support Documentation
POLARIS-N5Polaris® Removable Knob for 1/4"-100 Adjusters with Side Holes, Qty. 1
$9.27
Today

1/4"-100 Large Adjustment Knob

Large Polaris Knob
Click to Enlarge

F25USK2 Knob Shown Attached to a POLARIS-K1 Mirror Mount
  • Ø0.925" Knob for Additional Angular Resolution
  • Clearance Hole Allows Access to Hex Socket of the Adjuster

This removable adjustment knob is compatible with many of our 1/4"-100 adjusters, including those used in the Ø1", Ø1.5", and Ø2" Polaris Kinematic Mounts and our Polaris Kinematic Platform Mount. The larger Ø0.925" size provides additional angular resolution over the standard Polaris knobs.

Please note that the F25USK2 knob is not compatible with Polaris mounts that use side-hole adjusters. The recessed bore of knob is not deep enough to allow the knob to engage the threads on the side-hole adjuster.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Imperial Price Available
F25USK2 Support Documentation
F25USK2Ø0.925" 1/4"-100 Removable Adjuster Knob
$9.32
Today

5/64" Hex Key Adjusters

POLARIS-K12AH with HKTS-5/64 Adjuster
Click for Details

POLARIS-K1-2AH with HKTS-5/64 Adjuster
  • For Convenient Adjustment of 5/64" and 2 mm Hex-Driven Actuators
  • Red Anodized Adjustment Knob with Engraved Hex Size
  • Replaceable Hex Tip
  • Sold in Packages of 4

These 5/64" Hex Key Adjuster Thumbscrews allow for quick adjustment of many 5/64" and 2 mm hex-driven actuators (or standard actuators with the knobs removed). These temporary knobs can be left in the screw's hex socket between adjustments for convenience (see photo to the right). An 8-32 setscrew (5/64" hex) secures the replaceable hex bit, which can be reversed if the tip is stripped. Contact Tech Support to order replacement hex key bits.

We offer hex key thumbscrews in sizes from 0.050" to 3/16" and 2 mm to 5 mm.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available
HKTS-5/64 Support Documentation
HKTS-5/64Customer Inspired! 5/64" (2 mm) Hex Key Thumbscrew, 4 Pack
$26.53
Today