Polaris® XY Translation Mount for Ø1" Optics
- SM1-Threaded Bore with ±2.0 mm of XY Travel
- Integrated Locking Mechanisms on Each Axis
- Heat Treated to Minimize Temperature-Dependent Hysteresis
XY Translation Mount
The front face features an SM1-threaded bore.
- XY Translator for Ø1" Optics with ±2.0 mm Range
- SM1-Threaded Bore and Integrated Locking Mechanism
- Matched Actuators and Body Provide Stability and Smooth Kinematic Adjustment
- Extensive Testing Guarantees Less than 5 μrad Reflected Beam Shift after 10 °C Temperature Cycling (See Test Data Tab for Details)
- Machined from Heat-Treated Stainless Steel with Low Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE)
- Passivated Stainless Steel Surface Ideal for Vacuum and High-Power Laser Cavity Applications
The Polaris® XY Translation Mount is the ultimate solution for applications requiring stringent long-term alignment stability. The front plate features an SM1-threaded (1.035"-40) bore with a stainless steel retaining ring for mounting Ø1" lenses or SM1-threaded components. The translation plates are secured using a patent-pending flexure preloading mechanism that is lockable using a setscrew with a ball tip that introduces minimal angular shifts during locking and unlocking. This design provides high holding force and pointing stability while allowing quick and easy installation of the optic. Two mounting positions are possible for right- or left-handed orientations.
This mount features an SM1-threaded bore which allows a variety of optical components to be secured. A stainless steel retaining ring is included with each mount; additional retaining rings can also be purchased separately. Polaris optic bores are precision machined to achieve a fit that will provide optimum positional stability over changing environmental conditions such as temperature changes, transportation shock, and vibration. The performance will be diminished if these mounts are used with optics that have an outer diameter tolerance greater than zero or smaller metric optic sizes (Ø25.0 mm). To order a mount designed for metric optics, please contact Tech Support.
Machined from heat-treated stainless steel, Polaris mounts utilize precision-matched adjusters with ball contacts and sapphire seats to provide smooth kinematic adjustment. As shown on the Test Data tab, these mounts have undergone extensive testing to ensure high-quality performance. The Polaris design addresses all of the common causes of beam misalignment; please refer to the Design Features tab for detailed information.
The POLARIS-1XY translation mount is equipped with #8 (M4) bores for post mounting, as well as Ø2 mm alignment pin holes around the mounting holes, allowing for precision alignments when paired with our posts for Polaris mirror mounts. See the Usage Tips tab for more recommendations about mounting configurations.
Cleanroom and Vacuum Compatibility
The POLARIS-1XY mount is designed to be compatible with cleanroom and vacuum applications. See the Specs tab and the Design Features tab for details.
|Optic Thickness (Max)||0.20" (5.0 mm)|
|XY Travel Range||±2 mm / ±2 mm|
|Adjusters||130 TPI Matched Actuator/Body Pairs, 195 µm/rev, 5/64" (2.0 mm) Hex Drive|
Mechanical Resolution per Adjuster
|5 µm (Typical)|
|Measured Beam Shift from
Locking Screw (per Axis)b
|15 µrad (Typical)
5 µrad (Achievable)
|Crosstalk (X/Y)||<3.4 µm/rev|
|Orthogonality (X/Y)||90.0° ± 0.5°|
|Beam Deviationc||<5 μrad|
|Recommended Optic Mounting Torque||5 - 18 oz-in for 5 mm Thick Optics|
|Maximum SM-Threaded Component
|30 lb-in for SM1-Threaded Parts|
|Maximum Front Plate Payload||0.5 lb-in (0.05 N·m) / 0.5 lb (2.3 N)|
|Mountingd||Two #8 (M4) Pocket Holes at 90°|
|Alignment Pin Holese||Two at Each Counterbore|
|Vacuum Compatibilityf||10-9 Torr at 25 °C with Proper Bake Out;
10-5 Torr at 25 °C without Bake Out;
DuPont Krytox® LVP High-Vacuum Grease Vapor Pressure:
10-13 Torr at 20 °C; 10-5 Torr at 200 °C;
DuPont Krytox® XHT-BDX High-Vacuum Grease Vapor Pressure:
10-14 Torr at 20 °C; 10-6 Torr at 200 °C;
EPO-TEK® 353ND (353NDPK) Epoxy Meets
Low Outgassing Standards NASA ASTM E595, Telcordia GR-1221
|Cleaningf||Passivated per ASTM-967 using Carpenter AAA Method|
|Operating Temperature Range||-30 to 200 °C|
Polaris® XY Translation Mount Test Data
The POLARIS-1XY Translation Mount has undergone extensive testing to ensure high-quality performance. Two POLARIS-1XY mounts had Ø1" mirrors installed and torqued down to 5 lb-in with the included SM1RR retaining ring. The mounts were then installed side-by-side in a temperature-controlled environment, each on a Ø1" stainless steel post that was secured to a stainless steel optical table. One mount had its translation axes unlocked (top plot to the right) and one had both axes locked (bottom plot). A beam from an independently temperature-stabilized laser diode was reflected by each mirror onto a position sensing detector.
Positional Repeatability After Thermal Shock
Purpose: This testing was done to determine how reliably the mount returns the optic, without hysteresis, to its initial position. These measurements show that the alignment of the optical system is unaffected by the temperature shock.
Procedure: The temperature of each mount tested was raised to above 34 °C, then the temperature of the mount was returned to the starting temperature. The results of these tests are shown to the right.
Results: As can be seen in the plots to the right, when the Polaris mounts were returned to their initial temperature, the angular position (both pitch and yaw) of each optic returned to within 5 µrad of its initial position. The performance of the mounts was tested further by subjecting them to repeated temperature change cycles. After each cycle, the mirror positions reliably returned to within 5 µrad of their initial positions.
Conclusions: The POLARIS-1XY Mount is a high-quality, ultra-stable mount that will reliably return an optic to its original position after cycling through a temperature change. As a result, this mount are is ideal for use in applications that require long-term alignment stability.
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Design Features of the POLARIS-1XY Mount
Several common factors typically lead to beam misalignment in an optical setup. These include temperature-induced hysteresis of the optic's position, crosstalk, drift, and backlash. Polaris optic mounts are designed specifically to minimize these misalignment factors and thus provide extremely stable performance. Hours of extensive research, multiple design efforts using sophisticated design tools such as finite element analysis software, and months of rigorous testing went into choosing the best components to provide an ideal solution for experiments requiring ultra-stable performance from a lens mount.
The temperature in most labs is not constant due to factors such as air conditioning, the number of people in the room, and the operating states of equipment. Thus, it is necessary that all mounts used in an alignment-sensitive optical setup be designed to minimize any thermally induced alignment effects. Thermal effects can be minimized by choosing materials with a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), like stainless steel. However, even mounts made from a material with a low CTE do not typically return the optic to its initial position when the initial temperature is restored. All the critical components of the POLARIS-1XY mount are heat treated prior to assembly since this process removes internal stresses that can cause a temperature-dependent hysteresis. As a result, the alignment of the optical system will be restored when the temperature of the mount is returned to the initial temperature.
The method by which the lens is secured in the mount is another important design factor; this Polaris mount offers excellent performance without the use of adhesives. Instead, it has an SM1-threaded bore and a stainless steel retaining ring that holds the optic in place. The holding force provided by the stainless steel retaining ring is sufficient to keep the lens locked into place regardless of the ambient temperature. This bore also allows other SM1-threaded components to be secured in the mount.
Crosstalk is minimized by carefully controlling the dimensional tolerances of the plates of the mount so that the X and Y actuators are orthogonal. In addition, sapphire seats are used at both contact points. Standard metal-to-metal actuator contact points will wear down over time. The polished sapphire seats of this Polaris mount, in conjunction with the hardened stainless steel actuator tips, maintain the integrity of the contact surfaces over time.
Drift and Backlash
In order to minimize the positional drift of the lens mount and backlash, it is necessary to limit the amount of play in the adjuster as well as the amount of lubricant used. When an adjustment is made to the actuator, the lubricant will be squeezed out of some spaces and built up in others. This non-equilibrium distribution of lubricant will slowly relax back into an equilibrium state. However, in doing so, this may cause the position of one of the mount's plates to move. The Polaris mounts use adjusters matched to the body that exceed all industry standards so very little adjuster lubricant is needed. These adjusters have a smooth feel that allows the user to make small, repeatable adjustments.
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Polaris mounts are shipped inside two vacuum bag layers.
Cleanroom and Vacuum Compatibility
All Polaris mounts, retaining rings, and lock nuts sold on this page are designed to be compatible with cleanroom and vacuum chamber applications. They are chemically cleaned using the Carpenter AAA passivation method to remove sulfur, iron, and contaminants from the surface. After passivation, they are assembled in a clean environment and double vacuum bagged to eliminate contamination when transported into a cleanroom.
The sapphire contacts are bonded into place using a NASA-approved low outgassing procedure. In addition, DuPont Krytox® LVP High-Vacuum Grease, an ultra-high-vacuum-compatible, low outgassing-PTFE grease, is applied to the adjusters. The grease applied to the dovetail mechanism is DuPont Krytox® XHT-BDX High-Vacuum Grease, which is also an ultra-high-vacuum-compatible, low-outgassing PTFE grease.
Each vacuum-compatible Polaris mount is packaged within two vacuum bag layers after assembly in a clean environment, as seen in the image to the right. These vacuum bags do not contain any desiccant materials and tightly wrap the mount preventing friction against the mount during shipping. This packing method protects the mount from corrosion, gas or liquid contamination, and particulates during transport. The first vacuum bag should be opened in a clean environment while the second vacuum bag should only be opened just prior to installation. When operating at pressures below 10-5 Torr, we highly recommend using an appropriate bake out procedure prior to installing the mount in order to minimize contamination caused by outgassing.
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Spanner bits and the TD24 torque driver can be used to mount optics in the POLARIS-1XY mount.
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POLARIS-1XY Mount with Lens
Through thermal changes and vibrations, the POLARIS-1XY translation mount is designed to provide years of use. Below are some usage tips to ensure that the mount provides optimal performance.
Due to its relatively low coefficient of thermal expansion, stainless steel was chosen as the material from which to fabricate the front and back plates of Polaris mounts. When mounting, we recommend using components fabricated from the same material, such as our Ø1" Posts for Polaris Mirror Mounts and Polaris Clamping Arm. These posts are made of stainless steel and provide two lines of contact with the mount, which help confine the bottom of the mount during variations in the surrounding temperature, thereby minimizing potential alignment issues.
To minimize the impact of vibrations and temperature changes, it is recommended that your setup has as low of a profile as possible. Using short posts will reduce the Y-axis translation caused by temperature variations and will minimize any movements caused by vibrations. Mount the Polaris directly onto a flat surface such as a breadboard using a 8-32 to 1/4"-20 thread adapter (Item # AE8E25E) or M4 x 0.7 to M6 x 1.0 adapter (Item # AE4M6M) with a beam height of 1.25" (31.8 mm). Using this mounting method, the instability introduced by a post will be eliminated.
Since an optic is prone to movement within its mounting bore, all optics should be mounted with the Polaris out of the setup to ensure accurate mounting that will minimize misalignment effects. As shown to the right, we recommend using a TD24 torque wrench with an SPB1 Spanner Bit for SM1-threaded Polaris mounts. See the Specs tab for recommended torques. Over torquing the optic retaining rings can result in dramatic surface distortions.
Mounting SM1-Threaded Components
Since the front optic plate of the Polaris mount can move independently from the other plates, it is important to hold all the plates together while mounting SM-threaded components. This ensures that the front plate will not rotate with respect to the other plates and damage the flexure between them.
Lock nut installation demonstrated with the POLARIS-LN1 lock nut on one of our low-distortion Polaris mounts. To install a lock nut without cross threading, gently place the lock nut against the end of the adjuster. "Unscrew" the nut until the threads of the nut and the adjuster align; then thread the nut onto the adjuster.
Each axis of the POLARIS-1XY translates ±2.0 mm from the optic's nominal center. To prevent accidental damage to the mount, translation limit stops are placed at the ends the translation ranges. Care should be taken when actuating the adjuster screws near the limits to prevent overdriving the mount and causing damage.
Polish and Clean the Points of Contact
We highly recommend that the points of contact between the mount and the post, as well as the post and the table, are clean and free of scratches or defects. For best results, we recommend using a polishing stone to clean the table’s surface and a polishing pad (Item # LFG1P) for the top and bottom of the post as well as the bottom of the mount.
We do not recommend taking the adjusters out of the body, as this can contaminate the threading and reduce the fine adjustment performance significantly. Also, do not pull the front plate away as it might stretch the springs beyond their operating range or crack the sapphire seats.
Adjuster Lock Nuts
The POLARIS-1XY mount is compatible with the POLARIS-LN05 adjuster lock nuts to provide an additional way to lock to the adjusters. For long term stability, we recommend using both the adjuster lock nuts and the translation locks.
To avoid cross threading the POLARIS-LN05 during installation, place it against the adjuster and "unscrew" the lock nut until you feel a slight drop, then thread the lock nut onto the adjuster (see the animation to the left). Each lock nut is pre-greased with the same ultra-high-vacuum-compatible, low-outgassing PTFE grease as the Polaris mounts and has been tested for adjuster fit.
|SM05 Threading: Ø1/2" Lens Tubes, 16 mm Cage Systems|
|External Thread, 0.535"-40.0 UNS-2A||Internal Thread, 0.535"-40.0 UNS-2B|
|Max Major Diameter||0.5340"||Min Major Diameter||0.5350"|
|Min Major Diameter||0.5289"||Min Pitch Diameter||0.5188"|
|Max Pitch Diameter||0.5178"||Max Pitch Diameter||0.5230"|
|Min Pitch Diameter||0.5146"||Min Minor Diameter (and 83.3% of Thread)||0.508"|
|Max Minor Diameter||0.5069"||Max Minor Diameter (and 64.9% of Thread)||0.514"|
|RMS Threading: Objective, Scan, and Tube Lenses|
|External Thread, 0.800"-36.0 UNS-2A||Internal Thread, 0.800"-36.0 UNS-2B|
|Max Major Diameter||0.7989"||Min Major Diameter||0.8000"|
|Min Major Diameter||0.7934"||Min Pitch Diameter||0.7820"|
|Max Pitch Diameter||0.7809"||Max Pitch Diameter||0.7866"|
|Min Pitch Diameter||0.7774"||Min Minor Diameter (and 83.3% of Thread)||0.770"|
|Max Minor Diameter||0.7688"||Max Minor Diameter (and 64.9% of Thread)||0.777"|
|C-Mount Threading: Machine Vision Lenses, CCD/CMOS Cameras|
|External Thread, 1.000"-32.0 UN-2A||Internal Thread, 1.000"-32.0 UN-2B|
|Max Major Diameter||0.9989"||Min Major Diameter||1.0000"|
|Min Major Diameter||0.9929"||Min Pitch Diameter||0.9797"|
|Max Pitch Diameter||0.9786"||Max Pitch Diameter||0.9846"|
|Min Pitch Diameter||0.9748"||Min Minor Diameter (and 83.3% of Thread)||0.966"|
|Max Minor Diameter||0.9651"||Max Minor Diameter (and 64.9% of Thread)||0.974"|
|SM1 Threading: Ø1" Lens Tubes, 30 mm Cage Systems|
|External Thread, 1.035"-40.0 UNS-2A||Internal Thread, 1.035"-40.0 UNS-2B|
|Max Major Diameter||1.0339"||Min Major Diameter||1.0350"|
|Min Major Diameter||1.0288"||Min Pitch Diameter||1.0188"|
|Max Pitch Diameter||1.0177"||Max Pitch Diameter||1.0234"|
|Min Pitch Diameter||1.0142"||Min Minor Diameter (and 83.3% of Thread)||1.008"|
|Max Minor Diameter||1.0068"||Max Minor Diameter (and 64.9% of Thread)||1.014"|
|SM30 Threading: Ø30 mm Lens Tubes|
|External Thread, M30.5 x 0.5 – 6H/6g||Internal Thread, M30.5 x 0.5 – 6H/6g|
|Max Major Diameter||30.480 mm||Min Major Diameter||30.500 mm|
|Min Major Diameter||30.371 mm||Min Pitch Diameter||30.175 mm|
|Max Pitch Diameter||30.155 mm||Max Pitch Diameter||30.302 mm|
|Min Pitch Diameter||30.059 mm||Min Minor Diameter (and 83.3% of Thread)||29.959 mm|
|Max Minor Diameter||29.938 mm||Max Minor Diameter (and 64.9% of Thread)||30.094 mm|
|SM1.5 Threading: Ø1.5" Lens Tubes|
|External Thread, 1.535"-40 UNS-2A||Internal Thread, 1.535"-40 UNS-2B|
|Max Major Diameter||1.5339"||Min Major Diameter||1.535"|
|Min Major Diameter||1.5288"||Min Pitch Diameter||1.5188"|
|Max Pitch Diameter||1.5177"||Max Pitch Diameter||1.5236"|
|Min Pitch Diameter||1.5140"||Min Minor Diameter (and 83.3% of Thread)||1.508"|
|Max Minor Diameter||1.5068"||Max Minor Diameter (and 64.9% of Thread)||1.514"|
|SM2 Threading: Ø2" Lens Tubes, 60 mm Cage Systems|
|External Thread, 2.035"-40.0 UNS-2A||Internal Thread, 2.035"-40.0 UNS-2B|
|Max Major Diameter||2.0338"||Min Major Diameter||2.0350"|
|Min Major Diameter||2.0287"||Min Pitch Diameter||2.0188"|
|Max Pitch Diameter||2.0176"||Max Pitch Diameter||2.0239"|
|Min Pitch Diameter||2.0137"||Min Minor Diameter (and 83.3% of Thread)||2.008"|
|Max Minor Diameter||2.0067"||Max Minor Diameter (and 64.9% of Thread)||2.014"|
|SM3 Threading: Ø3" Lens Tubes|
|External Thread, 3.035"-40.0 UNS-2A||Internal Thread, 3.035"-40.0 UNS-2B|
|Max Major Diameter||3.0337"||Min Major Diameter||3.0350"|
|Min Major Diameter||3.0286"||Min Pitch Diameter||3.0188"|
|Max Pitch Diameter||3.0175"||Max Pitch Diameter||3.0242"|
|Min Pitch Diameter||3.0133"||Min Minor Diameter (and 83.3% of Thread)||3.008"|
|Max Minor Diameter||3.0066"||Max Minor Diameter (and 64.9% of Thread)||3.014"|
|SM4 Threading: Ø4" Lens Tubes|
|External Thread, 4.035"-40 UNS-2A||Internal Thread, 4.035"-40.0 UNS-2B|
|Max Major Diameter||4.0337"||Min Major Diameter||4.0350"|
|Min Major Diameter||4.0286"||Min Pitch Diameter||4.0188"|
|Max Pitch Diameter||4.0175"||Max Pitch Diameter||4.0245"|
|Min Pitch Diameter||4.0131"||Min Minor Diameter (and 83.3% of Thread)||4.008"|
|Max Minor Diameter||4.0066"||Max Minor Diameter (and 64.9% of Thread)||4.014"|
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Polaris mounts have two Ø2 mm dowel pin holes by each #8 (M4) mounting bore for alignment.
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Y-axis translation features are shown above. The X-axis adjuster and lock are also visible but not labelled.
- ±2.0 mm XY Translation Range
- SM1 (1.035"-40) Threading for Mounting Ø1" Optics up to 0.20" (5 mm) Thick
- 2-Adjuster, Hex-Driven Design
- 130 TPI Matched Actuator/Body Pairs
- <5 µrad Deviation after Temperature Cycling (See the Test Data Tab for Details)
The POLARIS-1XY XY Translation Mount for Ø1" Optics offers ±2.0 mm of XY travel and is designed to provide easy high-resolution adjustment (0.2 mm/rev) and long-term alignment stability. The mount features a patent pending flexure preloading mechanism which keeps the translation smooth and repeatable. It is also designed to be compatible with cleanroom and vacuum applications.
The POLARIS-1XY mount features two 3/16"-130 TPI fine adjusters, each with a 5/64" (2.0 mm) hex, which may be adjusted with our HKTS-5/64 Hex Key Thumbscrews (sold separately below), the hex on the end of the SA1 tool, or any other 5/64" (2.0 mm) hex wrench. The adjusters on this mount can be locked using the integrated translation locks with 5/64" (2.0 mm) hex or with POLARIS-LN05 lock nuts (sold separately below). Note that the integrated lock for each axis is adjacent to the adjuster for the other axis, as illustrated for the y-axis in the photo to the right. For long term stability, we recommend using both the adjuster lock nuts and the translation locks.
A stainless-steel retaining ring (included) is used to hold optics up to 0.20" (5 mm) thick. Additional retaining rings (Item # POLARIS-SM1RR) can also be purchased separately. This mount is also equipped with two engraved scales that provide a translation reference with 0.5 mm tick spacing.
Post mounting is provided by two #8 (M4) bores. For custom mounting configurations, two Ø2 mm alignment pin holes are located on each mounting face (as shown in the photo above) for setting a precise location and mounting angle. Standard DIN 7-m6 ground dowel pins are recommended. We recommend using this mount with a stainless steel post, such as our Ø1" Posts for Polaris Mirror Mounts.
Please note that these mounts are designed for Ø1" optics and are not intended for use with Ø25 mm metric optics.
- For Convenient Adjustment of 5/64" and 2 mm Hex-Driven Actuators
- Red Anodized Adjustment Knob with Engraved Hex Size
- Replaceable Hex Tip
- Sold in Packages of 4
These 5/64" Hex Key Adjuster Thumbscrews allow for quick adjustment of many 5/64" and 2 mm hex-driven actuators (or standard actuators with the knobs removed). These temporary knobs can be left in the screw's hex socket between adjustments for convenience (see photo to the right). An 8-32 setscrew (5/64" hex) secures the replaceable hex bit, which can be reversed if the tip is stripped. Contact Tech Support to order replacement hex key bits.
We offer hex key thumbscrews in sizes from 0.050" to 3/16" and 2 mm to 5 mm.
To install a lock nut without cross threading, gently place the lock nut against the end of the adjuster. "Unscrew" the nut until the threads of the nut and the adjuster align before threading the nut onto the adjuster. This animation shows the installation of a POLARIS-LN1 lock nut on a POLARIS-K1F1 low distortion mount.
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POLARIS-LN05 Lock Nuts on a POLARIS-K19S4 Mount
- Provide Long Term Adjuster Stability
- Compatible with Select Polaris Mounts
These lock nuts are designed for use with Polaris mounts with 3/16"-130 adjusters. Designed for long-term adjuster stability or applications that are exposed to shock and vibration, these lock nuts are pre-greased with the same ultra-high-vacuum-compatible, low-outgassing PTFE grease as the Polaris mounts and have been tested for adjuster fit.
For applications that require frequent tuning of the adjusters, the lock nuts only need to be lightly tightened by hand. POLARIS-LN05 lock nuts require a 6 mm hex tool for tightening. To avoid cross threading the lock nut, place it against the adjuster and "unscrew" the lock nut until you feel a slight drop; then thread the lock nut onto the adjuster.