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Si Avalanche Photodetectors


  • High-Speed Response up to 1 GHz
  • Conversion Gains up to 2.65 × 109 V/W
  • Wavelength Range of 200 - 1000 nm or 400 - 1000 nm
  • Temperature-Compensated and Variable-Gain Versions Available

APD120A

Avalanche Photodetector (APD)

APD210

Variable-Gain APD

APD130A2

Temperature-Compensated APD

APD430A

Variable-Gain,
Temperature-Compensated APD

Related Items


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Si APD Selection Guide
Item # Wavelength
Range
Bandwidth
(3 dB)
Type (Quick Links)
APD120A2(/M) 200 - 1000 nm DC - 50 MHz Standard
APD120A(/M) 400 - 1000 nm
APD130A2(/M) 200 - 1000 nm Temperature Compensated
APD130A(/M) 400 - 1000 nm
APD440A2 200 - 1000 nm DC - 0.1 MHz Variable Gain,
Temperature Compensated
APD410A2(/M) DC - 10 MHz
APD430A2(/M) DC - 400 MHz
APD440A 400 - 1000 nm DC - 0.1 MHz
APD410A(/M) DC - 10 MHz
APD430A(/M) DC - 400 MHz
APD210 5 - 1000 MHz Variable Gain
APD Temperature Stability
Click to Enlarge

The above plot shows sample data comparing the M factor stability of our temperature-compensated avalanche photodetectors to our standard packages. The blue shaded region indicates the temperature range over which the M factor stability is guaranteed to within ±3%.

Features

  • Noise Equivalent Powers (NEP) as Low as 2.5 fW/√Hz
  • Max Bandwidth up to 1 GHz at 3 dB
  • Temperature-Compensated Versions Provide M Factor Stability of ≤±3% Over 18 to 28 °C
  • Variable Gain Detectors Available: M Factor from 5 to 50 or 10 to 100
  • Internal SM05 and External SM1 Threading for Lens Tubes
  • Power Supply Included

Thorlabs' Silicon Avalanche Photodetectors (APD) are designed to offer increased sensitivity and lower noise compared to standard PIN detectors, making them ideal for applications with low optical power levels. In addition to our standard APDs, versions featuring variable gain (i.e., M factor) and/or temperature compensation are offered.

In general, avalanche photodiodes use an internal gain mechanism to increase sensitivity. A high reverse bias voltage is applied to the diodes to create a strong electric field. When an incident photon generates an electron-hole pair, the electric field accelerates the electrons, leading to the production of secondary electrons by impact ionization. The resulting electron avalanche can produce a gain factor of several hundred times, described by a multiplication factor, M, that is a function of both the reverse bias voltage and temperature. In general, the M factor increases with lower temperatures and decreases with higher temperatures. Similarly, the M factor will increase when the reverse bias voltage is raised and decrease when the reverse bias voltage is lowered.

Our APD130A2(/M) and APD130A(/M) temperature-compensated APDs feature integrated thermistors that adjust the bias voltage to compensate for the effect of temperature changes on the M factor. A comparison with our non-temperature-compensated APDs is provided in the graph to the right.

In addition to being temperature compensated, our variable-gain APD400 series detectors allow the reverse bias voltage across the diodes to be adjusted via a rotary knob on the side of the housing, which varies the M factor from 5 to 50 or 10 to 100.

Thorlabs offers Menlo Systems' APD210 Variable-Gain Avalanche Photodetector, which offers high-speed response up to 1 GHz (at 3 dB). Additionally, we offer spectral-flattening filters that are designed to improve the response uniformity of our silicon photodiodes and detectors; click here to learn more.

A complete list of all of our APDs, including those that have an InGaAs photodiode for use at IR wavelengths, can be found on the Selection Guide tab. Please note that these packaged APDs are not suitable for use as single photon counters. Thorlabs has single photon counters available here.

Item # APD120A2 APD130A2 APD120A APD130A
Detector Type UV Enhanced
Silicon APD
Silicon APD
Wavelength Range 200 - 1000 nm 400 - 1000 nm
Output Bandwidth (3 dB) DC - 50 MHz
Active Area Diameter 1 mm
Typical Max Responsivity 25 A/W @ 600 nm (M = 50) 25 A/W @ 800 nm (M = 50)
M Factora,b 50
M Factor Temperature Stabilityc Not
Specified
±2% (Typical);
±3% (Max)
Not
Specified
±2% (Typical);
±3% (Max)
Transimpedance Gain 50 kV/A with 50 Ω Terminationd
100 kV/A for High-Impedance Termination
Max Conversion Gaine,f 2.5 x 106 V/W
CW Saturation Power 1.5 µW
Max Input Powerg 1 mW
Minimum NEP (DC - 50 MHz)e,h 0.21 pW/√Hz 0.20 pW/√Hz
Integrated Noise (DC - 50 MHz) 1.4 nW (RMS) 1.5 nW (RMS)
Electrical Outputs 50 Ω BNC
Max Output Voltage 1.8 V with 50 Ω Termination
3.6 V with High-Impedance Termination
DC Offset Electrical Output <±15 mV
Power Supplyi ±12 V @ 250 mA
(100/120/230 VAC, 50 - 60 Hz, Switchable)
General
Operating Temperature Range 0 to 40 °C (Non-Condensing)
Storage Temperature Range -40 to 70 °C
Device Dimensions (H x W x D) 75.5 mm x 50.8 mm x 27.4 mm
(2.97" x 2.00" x 1.08")
Weight <0.1 kg
  • These detectors are factory set to M = 50, but other M factors are available on request. Please contact techsupport@thorlabs.com for more information.
  • The responsivity scales with the M factor, which is dependent on the reverse bias voltage across the photodiode. For a given photodiode, a higher M factor corresponds to a higher reverse bias voltage, which increases the photodiode responsivity. By definition, M = 1 corresponds to a reverse bias voltage of 0 V.
  • Temperature within 23 ± 5 °C.
  • 50 Ω termination is recommended for the best performance.
  • At the Peak Responsivity Wavelength
  • The Conversion Gain is product of the Transimpedance Gain and the Responsivity for a given M factor and wavelength.
  • This value is the damage threshold for the photodiode.
  • For more information on how NEP is calculated, please see Thorlabs' Noise Equivalent Power White Paper.
  • A replacement power supply is available below.

All technical data are valid at 23 ± 1 °C (APD120) or 23 ± 5 °C (APD130) and 45% ± 15% relative humidity (non-condensing).

All technical data are valid at 23 ± 5 °C and 45% ± 15% relative humidity (non-condensing).

Item # APD440A2 APD410A2(/M) APD430A2(/M)
Detector Type UV Enhanced Silicon APD
Wavelength Range 200 - 1000 nm
Output Bandwidth (3 dB)a DC - 100 kHz DC - 10 MHz DC - 400 MHz
Active Area Diameter 1.0 mm 0.5 mm 0.2 mm
Typical Max Responsivity 25 A/W @ 600 nm (M = 50) 25 A/W @ 600 nm (M = 50) 50 A/W @ 600 nm (M = 100)
Responsivity Graph
(Click to View)
M Factor Adjustment Rangeb,c 5 - 50 (Continuous) 10 - 100 (Continuous)
M Factor Temperature Stabilityd ±2% (Typical); ±3% (Max)
Transimpedance Gain 25 MV/A (50 Ω Termination)
50 MV/A (High-Z Termination)
250 kV/A (50 Ω Termination)e
500 kV/A (High-Z Termination)
5 kV/A (50 Ω Termination)e
10 kV/A (High-Z Termination)
Max Conversion Gainf,g 1.25 × 109 V/W 12.5 × 106 V/W 5.0 × 105 V/W
CW Saturation Power 3.28 nW @ 600 nm, M = 50
32.8 nW @ 600 nm, M = 5
0.32 µW @ 600 nm, M = 50
3.20 µW @ 600 nm, M = 5
8.0 µW @ 600 nm, M = 100
80 µW @ 600 nm, M = 10
Max Input Powerh 1 mW
Minimum NEPi 2.5 fW/√Hz (DC - 100 kHz) 0.09 pW/√Hz (DC - 10 MHz) 0.15 pW/√Hz (DC - 100 MHz)
Integrated Noise (RMS)a 0.8 pW (DC - 100 kHz) 0.28 nW (DC - 10 MHz) 6 nW (DC - 400 MHz)
Electrical Outputs 50 Ω BNC
Max Output Voltage 2.0 V (50 Ω Termination); 4.1 V (High-Z Termination)
DC Offset Electrical Output <±3 mV
Included Power Supplyj ±12 V @ 250 mA (100/120/230 VAC, 50 - 60 Hz, Switchable)
General
Operating Temperature Range 0 to 40 °C (Non-Condensing)
Storage Temperature Range -40 to 70 °C
Device Dimensions
(H x W x D)
2.93" x 2.21" x 1.08"
(74.5 mm x 56.1 mm x 27.4 mm)
2.97" x 2.20" x 1.09"
(75.5 mm x 55.8 mm x 27.6 mm)
Weight 0.12 kg 0.1 kg
  • At Maximum Gain Setting
  • The responsivity scales with the M factor, which is dependent on the reverse bias voltage across the photodiode. For a given photodiode, a higher M factor corresponds to a higher reverse bias voltage, which increases the photodiode responsivity. By definition, M = 1 corresponds to a reverse bias voltage of 0 V.
  • For Small Signals
  • Ambient temperature within 23 ± 5 °C.
  • 50 Ω termination is recommended for the best performance.
  • At the Peak Responsivity Wavelength
  • The conversion gain is the product of the transimpedance gain and the responsivity for a given M factor and wavelength.
  • This value is the damage threshold for the photodiode.
  • For more information on how NEP is calculated, please see Thorlabs' Noise Equivalent Power White Paper.
  • A replacement power supply is available below.
Item # APD440A APD410A APD430A
Detector Type Silicon APD
Wavelength Range 400 - 1000 nm
Output Bandwidth (3 dB)a DC - 100 kHz DC - 10 MHz DC - 400 MHz
Active Area Diameter 1.0 mm 1.0 mm 0.5 mm
Typical Max Responsivity 53 A/W @ 800 nm (M = 100)
Responsivity Graph
(Click to View)
M Factor Adjustment Rangeb 10 - 100 (Continuous)
M Factor Temperature Stabilityc ±2% (Typical); ±3% (Max)
Transimpedance Gain 25 MV/A (50 Ω Termination)
50 MV/A (High-Z Termination)
250 kV/A (50 Ω Termination)d
500 kV/A (High-Z Termination)
5 kV/A (50 Ω Termination)d
10 kV/A (High-Z Termination)
Max Conversion Gaine,f 2.65 × 109 V/W 26.5 × 106 V/W 5.3 × 105 V/W
CW Saturation Power 1.54 nW @ 800 nm, M = 100
15.4 nW @ 800 nm, M = 10
0.15 µW @ 800 nm, M = 100
1.50 µW @ 800 nm, M = 10
8.0 µW @ 800 nm, M = 100
80 µW @ 800 nm, M = 10
Max Input Powerg 1 mW
Minimum NEPf,g 3.5 fW/√Hz (DC - 100 kHz) 0.04 pW/√Hz (DC - 10 MHz) 0.14 pW/√Hz (DC - 100 MHz)
Integrated Noise (RMS)a 1.1 pW (DC - 100 kHz) 0.13 nW (DC - 10 MHz) 5.5 nW (DC - 400 MHz)
Electrical Outputs 50 Ω BNC
Max Output Voltage 2.0 V (50 Ω Termination); 4.1 V (High-Z Termination)
DC Offset Electrical Output <±3 mV
Included Power Supplyi ±12 V @ 250 mA (100/120/230 VAC, 50 - 60 Hz, Switchable)
General
Operating Temperature Range 0 to 40 °C (Non-Condensing)
Storage Temperature Range -40 to 70 °C
Device Dimensions
(H x W x D)
2.93" x 2.21" x 1.08"
(74.5 mm x 56.1 mm x 27.4 mm)
2.97" x 2.20" x 1.09"
(75.5 mm x 55.8 mm x 27.6 mm)
Weight 0.12 kg 0.1 kg
  • At Maximum Gain Setting
  • The responsivity scales with the M factor, which is dependent on the reverse bias voltage across the photodiode. For a given photodiode, a higher M factor corresponds to a higher reverse bias voltage, which increases the photodiode responsivity. By definition, M = 1 corresponds to a reverse bias voltage of 0 V.
  • Ambient temperature within 23 ± 5 °C.
  • 50 Ω termination is recommended for the best performance.
  • At the Peak Responsivity Wavelength
  • The conversion gain is the product of the transimpedance gain and the responsivity for a given M factor and wavelength.
  • This value is the damage threshold for the photodiode.
  • For more information on how NEP is calculated, please see Thorlabs' Noise Equivalent Power White Paper.
  • A replacement power supply is available below.

APD210 Specifications

Item # APD210
Detector Type Si APD
Wavelength Range 400 - 1000 nm
Bandwidth 5 MHz - 1000 MHz (3 dB)
1 MHz - 1600 MHz (Max)
Active Area Diameter 0.5 mm
Optical Input Free Spacea
Conversion Gain (Max)b 2.5 x 105 V/W @ 1 GHz, 800 nm
Max Input Power 10 mW
NEP (Calculated)c 0.4 pW/√Hz
Rise Time 500 ps
Dark State Noise Leveld -80 dBm
Operating Temperature 10 - 40 °C
Output Impedance 50 Ω
Output Connector BNC
Output Coupling AC
Current Consumption 200 mA
Supply Voltage 12 - 15 Ve
Device Dimensions 2.4" x 2.2" x 1.9"
(60 mm x 56 mm x 47.5 mm)
  • With adapter for Thorlabs' SM05 Mount
  • Gain Adjustable via Push Buttons
  • The noise-equivalent power is a measure of the detector's minimum detectable power per square root of bandwidth. Since this value only depends on the detector itself, it can be used to compare two detectors that do not have the same integration time. The smaller the NEP value, the better the detector.
  • This is a measure of the noise when no light is incident on the detector's photosensitive area. Span: 5 MHz, Resolution Bandwidth: 3 kHz
  • A power supply is included with a US or EU adapter, depending on your location. Please contact Tech Support if a different adapter is required.

Pulse Response Data

Pulse Train for APD210

BNC Female Output (Photodetector)

BNC Female

APD Male (Power Cables)

Pinout for PDA Power Cable

APD Female (Photodetector)

Pinout for PDA Power Connector

Components for Fiber Coupling
Item # Description
- Avalanche Photodetector
LM1XY(/M) Translating Lens Mount for Ø1" Optics
SM1L10 SM1 (1.035"-40) Lens Tube, 1" Long
- Fiber Collimator
(Dependent on Fiber)
AD11F or AD12F SM1-Threaded Adapters for Ø11 or Ø12 mm Fiber Collimators
(Dependent on Collimator)
- Mounted Molded Aspheric Lens
(Dependent on Collimator)
S1TM06, S1TM08,
S1TM09, S1TM10,
or S1TM12
SM1-Threaded Adapter for Molded Aspheric Lens Cell
(Dependent on Lens)
Fiber Coupled Photodetector
Click to Enlarge

Output from a fiber is coupled into the photodetector using an aspheric lens to focus the signal onto the detector active area.

Fiber Coupling

In fiber coupling applications, we recommend taking into account the divergence of light from the fiber tip to ensure that all of the signal is focused onto the detector active area. When using a standard fiber connector adapter with a detector with an active area smaller than Ø1 mm, high coupling losses and degradation of the frequency response may occur.

To achieve high coupling efficiency, a fiber collimation package, focusing lens, and X-Y translator should be used, as shown in the photo to the right. The avalanche photodetector is shown with a fiber collimator, lens tube collimator adapter, lens tube, and X-Y translation mount. An adapter inside the lens tube holds an aspheric lens (not visible) to focus the collimated light onto the active area of the detector. The X-Y translation mount corrects for any centering issues.

Pulsed Laser Emission: Power and Energy Calculations

Determining whether emission from a pulsed laser is compatible with a device or application can require referencing parameters that are not supplied by the laser's manufacturer. When this is the case, the necessary parameters can typically be calculated from the available information. Calculating peak pulse power, average power, pulse energy, and related parameters can be necessary to achieve desired outcomes including:

  • Protecting biological samples from harm.
  • Measuring the pulsed laser emission without damaging photodetectors and other sensors.
  • Exciting fluorescence and non-linear effects in materials.

Pulsed laser radiation parameters are illustrated in Figure 1 and described in the table. For quick reference, a list of equations are provided below. The document available for download provides this information, as well as an introduction to pulsed laser emission, an overview of relationships among the different parameters, and guidance for applying the calculations. 

 

Equations:

Period and repetition rate are reciprocal:    and 
Pulse energy calculated from average power:       
Average power calculated from pulse energy:        
Peak pulse power estimated from pulse energy:            

Peak power and average power calculated from each other:
  and
Peak power calculated from average power and duty cycle*:
*Duty cycle () is the fraction of time during which there is laser pulse emission.
Pulsed Laser Emission Parameters
Click to Enlarge

Figure 1: Parameters used to describe pulsed laser emission are indicated in the plot (above) and described in the table (below). Pulse energy (E) is the shaded area under the pulse curve. Pulse energy is, equivalently, the area of the diagonally hashed region. 

Parameter Symbol Units Description
Pulse Energy E Joules [J] A measure of one pulse's total emission, which is the only light emitted by the laser over the entire period. The pulse energy equals the shaded area, which is equivalent to the area covered by diagonal hash marks.
Period Δt  Seconds [s]  The amount of time between the start of one pulse and the start of the next.
Average Power Pavg Watts [W] The height on the optical power axis, if the energy emitted by the pulse were uniformly spread over the entire period.
Instantaneous Power P Watts [W] The optical power at a single, specific point in time.
Peak Power Ppeak Watts [W] The maximum instantaneous optical power output by the laser.
Pulse Width Seconds [s] A measure of the time between the beginning and end of the pulse, typically based on the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the pulse shape. Also called pulse duration.
Repetition Rate frep Hertz [Hz] The frequency with which pulses are emitted. Equal to the reciprocal of the period.

Example Calculation:

Is it safe to use a detector with a specified maximum peak optical input power of 75 mW to measure the following pulsed laser emission?

  • Average Power: 1 mW
  • Repetition Rate: 85 MHz
  • Pulse Width: 10 fs

The energy per pulse:

seems low, but the peak pulse power is:

It is not safe to use the detector to measure this pulsed laser emission, since the peak power of the pulses is >5 orders of magnitude higher than the detector's maximum peak optical input power.


Posted Comments:
User  (posted 2019-03-12 04:11:25.293)
It seems that the quantum efficiency of your UV-enhanced Silicon APD at 300nm is 62% (computed with a Responsivity value of 0.15A/W, read on your responsivity graph). Could you explain this difference if we compare with your other Silicon detectors that show a quantum efficiency around 20% at 300nm? (As we expect from Silicon material at this wavelength) Thank you for your answer.
nreusch  (posted 2019-03-21 06:19:36.0)
This is a response from Nicola at Thorlabs. Thank you for the inquiry. The APD430A2 and APD410A2 come with a UV enhanced photodiode. The material of such photodiodes differs from the composition of other Si photodiodes, which shifts the peak responsivity to lower values.
Lint  (posted 2019-01-26 16:41:38.57)
Hello, we are looking for this product APD120A for a customer project and we would like to enquire the price for this product in a MOQ of 50pcs, 100pcs, 200pcs and 300pcs. Pls let us have the quote ASAP. Thank you.
YLohia  (posted 2019-04-04 09:18:05.0)
Hello, thank you for your interest in our products. For OEM inquiries, we can be reached at OEMSales@thorlabs.com. We have been in direct contact with you regarding this matter.
minowa  (posted 2018-09-24 23:09:10.45)
Hi, I'm wondering about the noise level of the APD210. On the manual and the web, the noise value 0.40 pW/√Hz is given as "NEP (calculated)" or "minimum NEP". I'd like to know the typical and maxmum NEP values, if possible. Furthermore, how did you calculate the NEP? Based on the Dark State Noise Level = -80dbm, a rough estimation of the NEP seems to be ~ sqrt(1mW*10^-8 * 50 ohm)/(2.5*10^5 V/W) /sqrt(1 GHz) ~ 2.8 fW/√hz. Am I missing some basic fact?
nreusch  (posted 2018-09-28 10:47:13.0)
This is a response from Nicola at Thorlabs. Thank you for your inquiry. The NEP for APD210 from Menlo Systems is calculated as follows: NEP=I_rtot/(S*B^0.5) with I_rtot=(I_rin^2+I_tot^2)^0.5. In this calculation I_rin=1.2*10^-11 A is the noise current at the amplifier input caused by the amplifier chain. I_tot=6.95*10^-14 A is the noise current at the amplifier input caused by the diode. S is the responsivity of the diode, which is 50 A/W in this case and B is the bandwidth of the detector. The result is NEP=0.24 pW/Hz^0.5. As the NEP is a function of responsivity, this value is valid for the peak responsivity value 50 A/W at 800 nm. I will contact you directly to discuss whether this detector is suitable for your application.
r.ebrahimifard  (posted 2018-04-20 17:25:31.36)
Dear Madam/Sir What is the diiference between the sensitivity of APD and Single Photon Counters of thorlabs? Do Single Photon Counters use the same Si APD? For a cytometry system, can I use APD instead of Single Photon Counters as APDs are also very sensitive?
mvonsivers  (posted 2018-05-17 10:30:54.0)
This is a response from Moritz at Thorlabs. Thank you for your inquiry. Our Single Photon Counter Modules are operated in Geiger Mode to have the ability to detect single photons. In contrast our Si APDs are operated below the breakdown voltage and are not suitable as single photon counters. I will contact you directly to further discuss your application.
mccrady  (posted 2018-04-19 15:08:56.687)
Are the power supplies for the APD120A2 UL listed?
swick  (posted 2018-04-27 03:42:56.0)
This is a response from Sebastian at Thorlabs. Thank you for the inquiry. Yes, the power supply LDS12B is UL and CE Compliant.
iain.cowie  (posted 2018-03-12 12:13:25.913)
Powersupply - can I run the ADP410A/M off a 12VDC battery?
swick  (posted 2018-03-19 06:43:53.0)
This is a response from Sebastian at Thorlabs. Thank you for the inquiry. It will not work to use a battery as power supply for our APD detectors. These detectors require three voltage levels: +12V , GND and -12V.
shin  (posted 2017-07-27 18:11:18.41)
Hi, I am wondering about the rise and fall time of the APD130A2 model. I want to use it for measuring fluorescence (of weak intensity) decay curves in which a decay time is several nanosecond or longer. What is the minimum decay time you can gurantee with the model? Second, could you recommend (highly sensitive) APD or PMT for measuring fluorescence decay curves with nanosecond lifetimes? Thank you very much for your help. Best, Taeho
swick  (posted 2017-07-28 03:12:39.0)
This is a response from Sebastian at Thorlabs. Thank you for the inquiry. The rise/fall time of APD130A2 can be calculated from specified bandwidth. t_rise = 0.34/Bandwidth = 7ns I have contacted you directly to provide further assistance.
Benjamin.Stuhlmann  (posted 2016-12-09 14:00:49.267)
Hello, we use this APD as detector for a fluorescence experiment inside a vacuum chamber. When we first contacted tech support it was unclear if the diode could withstand our vacuum conditions since this question was unpresedented at the time. We tested it in our setup at pressures down to 10^-5 mbar for some months now and it is working just fine. By locating the detector as near at our molecular beam as possible, we improved our S/N ratio and simplified the adjustment of all components compared to the old experiment where the detector was outside the vacuum chamber. If you are interested, I could send you some notes about our setup for further reference.
swick  (posted 2016-12-12 03:11:46.0)
This is a response from Sebastian at Thorlabs. Thank you very much for the feedback. We are always interested and appreciate that kind of information and feedback. I have contacted you directly.
rajendhar.j2008  (posted 2016-09-28 18:12:37.377)
We need the rising time of the detector
swick  (posted 2016-09-29 05:27:54.0)
This is a response from Sebastian at Thorlabs. Thank you very much for your inquiry. The rise time of APD120A2/M can be calculated from specified bandwidth via: rise_time = 0.3497 / bandwidth For APD120A2/M the rise time is 7ns.
cmrogers  (posted 2016-02-09 18:56:07.087)
How thick is the window on the detector for APD410A?
shallwig  (posted 2016-02-10 08:38:00.0)
This is a response from Stefan at Thorlabs. Thank you very much for your inquiry unfortunately we have no spec for the thickness of the detectors window. I will contact you directly to check if you have any further questions.
moritz.wiesbauer  (posted 2014-05-08 14:39:01.4)
Hello, I purchased the APD120A/M recently and read in the manual the temperature dependancy of the APD. It says I should contact Thorlabs for further information about the decreasing M-factor with increasing temperature. How big is the decrease if the temperature is at 27°C or even up to 30°C? I'm very thankful for any further information on this topic. Best regards, Moritz Wiesbauer Institute of Applied Physics Johannes Kepler Universität Linz E-Mail: moritz.wiesbauer@jku.at
shallwig  (posted 2014-05-12 09:32:36.0)
This is a response from Stefan at Thorlabs. Thank you very much for your inquiry. I will send you a curve showing the temperature dependency of the M factor and would like to discuss your application in detail directly.

Avalanche Photodetector Selection Guide

Item # Detector
Type
Wavelength
Range
3 dB Bandwidth Active Area
Diameter
M Factor Typical Max
Responsivity
Max
Conversion Gaina
Temperature
Compensated
Variable
Gain
APD440A2 UV Enhanced
Silicon APD
200 - 1000 nm DC - 0.1 MHz 1 mm 5 - 50 25 A/W @ 600 nm (M = 50) 1.25 x 109 V/W Yes! Yes!
APD410A2 DC - 10 MHz 0.5 mm 5 - 50 25 A/W @ 600 nm (M = 50) 12.5 x 106 V/W Yes! Yes!
APD120A2 DC - 50 MHz 1 mm 50 25 A/W @ 600 nm (M = 50) 2.5 x 106 V/W - -
APD130A2 DC - 50 MHz 1 mm 50 25 A/W @ 600 nm (M = 50) 2.5 x 106 V/W Yes! -
APD430A2 DC - 400 MHz 0.2 mm 10 - 100 50 A/W @ 600 nm (M = 100) 5.0 x 105 V/W Yes! Yes!
APD440A Silicon APD 400 - 1000 nm DC - 0.1 MHz 1 mm 10 - 100 53 A/W @ 800 nm (M = 100) 2.65 x 109 V/W Yes! Yes!
APD410A DC - 10 MHz 1.0 mm 10 - 100 53 A/W @ 800 nm (M=100) 26.5 x 106 V/W Yes! Yes!
APD120A DC - 50 MHz 1 mm 50 25 A/W @ 800 nm (M = 50) 2.5 x 106 V/W - -
APD130A DC - 50 MHz 1 mm 50 25 A/W @ 800 nm (M = 50) 2.5 x 106 V/W Yes! -
APD430A DC - 400 MHz 0.5 mm 10 - 100 53 A/W @ 800 nm (M = 100) 5.3 x 105 V/W Yes! Yes!
APD210 5 - 1000 MHzb 0.5 mm N/A N/A 2.5 x 105 V/Wc - Yes!
APD110C InGaAs APD 900 - 1700 nm DC - 50 MHz 0.2 mm 10 9 A/W @ 1500 nm (M = 10) 0.9 x 106 V/W - -
APD130C DC - 50 MHz 0.2 mm 10 9 A/W @ 1500 nm (M = 10) 0.9 x 106 V/W Yes! -
APD410C DC - 10 MHz 0.2 mm 4 - 20 18 A/W @ 1550 nm (M = 20) 9.0 x 106 V/W Yes! Yes!
APD430C DC - 400 MHz 0.2 mm 4 - 20 18 A/W @ 1550 nm (M = 20) 1.8 x 105 V/W Yes! Yes!
APD450C 1260 - 1620 nm 0.3 - 1600 MHz 1.5 mmd 2 - 10 9 A/W @ 1550 nm (M = 10) 45 × 103 V/W Yes! Yes!
APD310 850 - 1650 nm 5 - 1000 MHze 0.03 mm N/A N/A 2.5 x 104 V/Wf - Yes!
  • At Peak Responsivity Wavelength Unless Otherwise Stated
  • The max frequency range is 1 MHz - 1600 MHz.
  • At 1 GHz and 800 nm
  • 75 µm Detector with Ø1.5 mm Ball Lens
  • The max frequency range is 1 MHz - 1800 MHz.
  • At 1 GHz and 1500 nm

Si Avalanche Photodetectors

Key Specificationsa
Item # APD120A2(/M) APD120A(/M)
Detector Type UV-Enhanced
Silicon APD
Silicon APD
Wavelength Range 200 - 1000 nm 400 - 1000 nm
Output Bandwidth (3 dB) DC - 50 MHz
Active Area Diameter 1 mm
Typical Max Responsivity (M = 50) 25 A/W @ 600 nm 25 A/W @ 800 nm
Responsivity Graph
(Click to View)
Transimpedance Gain 50 kV/A (50 Ω Termination)
100 kV/A (High-Z Termination)
Max Conversion Gainb 2.5 × 106 V/W
M Factor 50
M Factor Temperature Stability Not Specified
Saturation Power (CW) 1.5 µW
Minimum NEP (DC - 50 MHz)b 0.21 pW/√Hz 0.20 pW/√Hz
Dimensions (H x W x D) 2.97" x 2.00" x 1.08"
  • For a complete list of specifications and responsivity graphs, please see the APD1xx Specs tab. Data are valid at 23 ± 1 °C and 45% ± 15% relative humidity (non-condensing).
  • At the Peak Responsivity Wavelength. For more information on how NEP is calculated, please see Thorlabs' Noise Equivalent Power White Paper.
  • Internal SM05 and External SM1 Threads Accept Most Fiber Adapters, Lens Tubes, and Other Components
  • Power Supply Included

Thorlabs' APD120A2(/M) and APD120A(/M) Avalanche Photodetectors are offered as a cost-effective solution for customers with applications that do not require temperature compensation or variable gain.

The orientation of the mechanical and electrical connections, combined with the compact design, ensures that these detectors can fit into tight spaces. Three 8-32 (M4) mounting holes, one on each edge of the housing, further ensure easy integration into complicated mechanical setups. The housing also provides compatibility with both our SM05- and SM1-Series Lens Tubes. An internally SM1-threaded cap is included.

Our SM1-threaded fiber adapters are compatible with these detectors. The internally SM1-threaded adapters can be mated directly to the housing, and are available below. To use our externally SM1-threaded fiber adapters, an internally SM1-threaded lens tube will be required to mate the fiber adapter to the detector's housing. The externally SM05-threaded fiber adapters are not compatible with these detectors.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Imperial Price Available
APD120A2 Support Documentation
APD120A2Si Avalanche Photodetector, UV Enhanced, 200 - 1000 nm, 8-32 Taps
$1,184.92
5-8 Days
APD120A Support Documentation
APD120ASi Avalanche Photodetector, 400 - 1000 nm, 8-32 Taps
$1,184.92
Today
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APD120A2/M Support Documentation
APD120A2/MSi Avalanche Photodetector, UV Enhanced, 200 - 1000 nm, M4 Taps
$1,184.92
Today
APD120A/M Support Documentation
APD120A/MSi Avalanche Photodetector, 400 - 1000 nm, M4 Taps
$1,184.92
Today

Temperature-Compensated Si Avalanche Photodetectors

Key Specificationsa
Item # APD130A2(/M) APD130A(/M)
Detector Type UV-Enhanced
Silicon APD
Silicon APD
Wavelength Range 200 - 1000 nm 400 - 1000 nm
Output Bandwidth (3 dB) DC - 50 MHz
Active Area Diameter 1 mm
Typical Max Responsivity (M = 50) 25 A/W @ 600 nm 25 A/W @ 800 nm
Responsivity Graph
(Click to View)
Transimpedance Gain 50 kV/A (50 Ω Termination)
100 kV/A (High-Z Termination)
Max Conversion Gainb 2.5 × 106 V/W
M Factor 50
M Factor Temperature Stabilitya ±2% (Typical); ±3% (Max)
Saturation Power (CW) 1.5 µW
Minimum NEP (DC - 50 MHz)b 0.21 pW/√Hz 0.20 pW/√Hz
Dimensions (H x W x D) 2.97" x 2.00" x 1.08"
  • For a complete list of specifications and responsivity graphs, please see the APD1xx Specs tab. Data are valid at 23 ± 5 °C and 45% ± 15% relative humidity (non-condensing).
  • At the Peak Responsivity Wavelength. For more information on how NEP is calculated, please see Thorlabs' Noise Equivalent Power White Paper.
  • Temperature Compensated to Provide M Factor Stability of ≤±3% Over 18 to 28 °C
  • Internal SM05 and External SM1 Threads Accept Most Fiber Adapters, Lens Tubes, and Other Components
  • Power Supply Included

Thorlabs' APD130A2(/M) and APD130A(/M) Avalanche Photodetectors feature an integrated thermistor that maintains an M factor stability of ±3% or better over 23 ± 5 °C by adjusting the bias voltage across the avalanche photodiode, supplying improved output stability in environments with temperature variations.

The orientation of the mechanical and electrical connections, combined with the compact design, ensures that these detectors can fit into tight spaces. Three 8-32 (M4) mounting holes, one on each edge of the housing, further ensure easy integration into complicated mechanical setups. The housing also provides compatibility with both our SM05- and SM1-Series Lens Tubes. An internally SM1-threaded cap is included.

Our SM1-threaded fiber adapters are compatible with these detectors. The internally SM1-threaded adapters can be mated directly to the housing, and are available below. To use our externally SM1-threaded fiber adapters, an internally SM1-threaded lens tube will be required to mate the fiber adapter to the detector's housing. The externally SM05-threaded fiber adapters are not compatible with these detectors.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Imperial Price Available
APD130A2 Support Documentation
APD130A2Si Avalanche Photodetector, Temperature Compensated, UV Enhanced, 200 - 1000 nm, 8-32 Taps
$1,272.58
Today
APD130A Support Documentation
APD130ASi Avalanche Photodetector, Temperature Compensated, 400 - 1000 nm, 8-32 Taps
$1,272.58
Today
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APD130A2/M Support Documentation
APD130A2/MSi Avalanche Photodetector, Temperature Compensated, UV Enhanced, 200 - 1000 nm, M4 Taps
$1,272.58
Today
APD130A/M Support Documentation
APD130A/MSi Avalanche Photodetector, Temperature Compensated, 400 - 1000 nm, M4 Taps
$1,272.58
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Variable-Gain, Temperature-Compensated Avalanche Photodetectors

Avalanche Photodetector
Click to Enlarge

The M Factor is controlled by a knob on the side of the APD.
  • Continuously Variable Gain
  • Temperature Compensated to Provide M Factor Stability of ≤±3% Over 18 to 28 °C
  • Internal SM05 and External SM1 Threads Accept Most Fiber Adapters, Lens Tubes, and Other Components
  • Power Supply Included

These Avalanche Photodetectors feature a variable gain that can be controlled by a knob on the right side of the housing. Like the APD130A detectors above, these devices feature an integrated thermistor that maintains an M factor stability of ±3% or better over 23 ± 5 °C by adjusting the bias voltage across the avalanche photodiode. Compared to the standard and temperature-controlled APDs above, the APD430A2 and APD430A detectors also offer a larger usable bandwidth of DC to 400 MHz. The APD410A2 and APD410A detectors offer a slightly smaller usable bandwidth (DC to 10 MHz), but with higher sensitivity. The APD440A2 and APD440A detectors offer high transimpedance gain with a lower max bandwidth of 100 kHz.

The orientation of the mechanical and electrical connections, combined with the compact design, ensures that these detectors can fit into tight spaces. Three 8-32 (M4) mounting holes, one on each edge of the housing, further ensure easy integration into complicated mechanical setups. The housing also provides compatibility with both our SM05- and SM1-Series Lens Tubes. An internally SM1-threaded cap is included.

Fiber Coupling Note:
For fiber-coupled applications, we do not recommend using fiber connector adapters such as Thorlabs' S120-FC with the APD410A2(/M), APD430A2(/M), and APD430A detectors due to the small size of the sensors. High coupling losses and degradation of the frequency response may occur. To achieve high coupling efficiency, a fiber collimation package, focusing lens, and X-Y translator should be used. See the Fiber Coupling tab for details.

Key Specificationsa
Item # APD440A2 APD410A2(/M) APD430A2(/M) APD440A APD410A(/M) APD430A(/M)
Detector Type UV-Enhanced Silicon APD Silicon APD
Wavelength Range 200 - 1000 nm 400 - 1000 nm
Output Bandwidth (3 dB)b DC - 100 kHz DC - 10 MHz DC - 400 MHz DC - 100 kHz DC - 10 MHz DC - 400 MHz
Active Area Diameter 1.0 mm 0.5 mm 0.2 mm 1.0 mm 1.0 mm 0.5 mm
Typical Max Responsivity 25 A/W @ M = 50c 25 A/W @ M = 50c 50 A/W @ M = 100c 53 A/W @ M = 100d
Responsivity Graph
(Click to View)
Transimpedance Gain 25 MV/A (50 Ω)
50 MV/A (High-Z)
250 kV/A (50 Ω)
500 kV/A (High-Z)
5 kV/A (50 Ω)
10 kV/A (High-Z)
25 MV/A (50 Ω)
50 MV/A (High-Z)
250 kV/A (50 Ω)
500 kV/A (High-Z)
5 kV/A (50 Ω)
10 kV/A (High-Z)
Max Conversion Gaine 1.25 × 109 V/W 12.4 × 106 V/W 5.0 × 105 V/W 2.65 × 109 V/W 26.5 × 106 V/W 5.3 × 105 V/W
M Factor Adjustment Range 5 - 50 (Continuous) 10 - 100 (Continuous)
M Factor Temperature Stabilityf ±2% (Typical); ±3% (Max)
Saturation Power (CW) 3.28 nW @ M = 50c
32.8 nW @ M = 5
0.32 µW @ M = 50c
3.20 µW @ M = 5
8.0 µW @ M = 100c
80 µW @ M = 10
1.54 nW @ M = 100d
15.4 nW @ M = 10
0.15 µW @ M = 100d
1.50 µW @ M = 10
8.0 µW @ M = 100d
80 µW @ M = 10
Minimum NEPg 2.5 fW/√Hz 0.09 pW/√Hz 0.15 pW/√Hz 3.5 fW/√Hz 0.04 pW/√Hz 0.14 pW/√Hz
Dimensions (H x Wx D) 2.93" x 2.21" x 1.08" 2.97" x 2.20" x 1.09" 2.93" x 2.21" x 1.08" 2.97" x 2.20" x 1.09"
  • For a complete list of specifications and responsivity graphs, please see the APD4xxx Specs tab. Data are valid at 23 ± 5 °C and 45% ± 15% relative humidity (non-condensing).
  • At Maximum Gain Setting
  • At 600 nm
  • At 800 nm
  • At the Peak Responsivity Wavelength
  • Within the 23 ± 5 °C temperature range.
  • For more information on how NEP is calculated, please see Thorlabs' Noise Equivalent Power White Paper.
Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Imperial Price Available
APD410A2 Support Documentation
APD410A2Si Variable-Gain Avalanche Detector, Temperature Compensated, UV Enhanced, 200 - 1000 nm, DC - 10 MHz, 8-32 Taps
$1,327.76
Today
APD430A2 Support Documentation
APD430A2Si Variable-Gain Avalanche Detector, Temperature Compensated, UV Enhanced, 200 - 1000 nm, DC - 400 MHz, 8-32 Taps
$1,327.76
Today
APD410A Support Documentation
APD410ASi Variable-Gain Avalanche Detector, Temperature Compensated, 400 - 1000 nm, DC - 10 MHz, 8-32 Taps
$1,327.76
Today
APD430A Support Documentation
APD430ASi Variable-Gain Avalanche Detector, Temperature Compensated, 400 - 1000 nm, DC - 400 MHz, 8-32 Taps
$1,327.76
Today
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available
APD440A Support Documentation
APD440ANEW!Customer Inspired! Si Variable-Gain Avalanche Detector, Temperature Compensated, 400 - 1000 nm, DC - 100 kHz, Universal 8-32 / M4 Taps
$1,184.50
Today
APD440A2 Support Documentation
APD440A2NEW!Customer Inspired! Si Variable-Gain Avalanche Detector, Temperature Compensated, 200 - 1000 nm, DC - 100 kHz, Universal 8-32 / M4 Taps
$1,184.50
Today
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APD410A2/M Support Documentation
APD410A2/MSi Variable-Gain Avalanche Detector, Temperature Compensated, UV Enhanced, 200 - 1000 nm, DC - 10 MHz, M4 Taps
$1,327.76
Today
APD430A2/M Support Documentation
APD430A2/MSi Variable-Gain Avalanche Detector, Temperature Compensated, UV Enhanced, 200 - 1000 nm, DC - 400 MHz, M4 Taps
$1,327.76
Today
APD410A/M Support Documentation
APD410A/MSi Variable-Gain Avalanche Detector, Temperature Compensated, 400 - 1000 nm, DC - 10 MHz, M4 Taps
$1,327.76
Today
APD430A/M Support Documentation
APD430A/MSi Variable-Gain Avalanche Detector, Temperature Compensated, 400 - 1000 nm, DC - 400 MHz, M4 Taps
$1,327.76
Today

Variable-Gain Si Avalanche Photodetector

Key Specificationsa
Item # APD210
Detector Type Silicon APD
Wavelength Range 400 - 1000 nm
Bandwidth 5 MHz - 1000 MHz (3 dB)
1 MHz - 1600 MHz (Max)
Active Area Diameter 0.5 mm
Responsivity Graph
(Click to View)
Transimpedance Gain Variable
Max Conversion Gain 2.5 × 105 V/W
M Factor Temperature Stability Not Specified
Minimum NEPb 0.40 pW/√Hz
  • For a complete list of specifications and responsivity graphs, please see the APD210 Specs tab.
  • For more information on how NEP is calculated, please see Thorlabs' Noise Equivalent Power White Paper.
  • High-Speed, Variable-Gain Avalanche Photodetector (up to 1 GHz at 3 dB)
  • Internal SM05 (0.535"-40) Threads for Lens Tube and Cage Assembly Integration
  • 100 Step Adjustable Gain
  • Location-Specific (EU or US) Power Supply Included

Menlo Systems' APD210 Si Avalanche Photodetector is sensitive and fast enough for the characterization of pulsed lasers on the order of nanoseconds. The Si avalanche photodiode of the APD210 provides exceptional performance for low-light applications in the 400 - 1000 nm range. This APD maintains high-gain stability over the operating temperature range by utilizing a temperature-compensation circuit, which adjusts the ~150 VDC bias to ensure operation near the breakdown voltage.

A 40 dB gain amplifier is integrated into the package and is AC-coupled to band the output BNC. The output is matched to 50 Ω impedance. The detector has an electronic bandwidth of 5 MHz to 1 GHz (at 3 dB) and offers user-accessible push buttons for 100 step gain adjustment. The APD210 has internal SM05 (0.535"-40) threading for easy integration into Thorlabs' family of lens tubes and cage assemblies. For direct fiber mounting, compatible fiber adapters are available. The bottom of the detector has a metric (M4) mounting hole and an M4 to 8-32 adapter for post mounting. The compact packaging allows the APD to be substituted directly into an existing setup while maintaining a small footprint on the benchtop. A power supply is included with this detector, and it ships with an EU or US adapter, depending on your location. Please contact Tech Support if a different adapter is required.

These photodetectors are not suitable for pulses longer than 30 ns or continuous light levels. Please see the FPD510 series for alternatives.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available
APD210 Support Documentation
APD210Variable-Gain, High-Speed Si Avalanche Photodetector, 400 - 1000 nm
$2,090.00
Today

±12 VDC Regulated Linear Power Supply

  • Replacement Power Supply for Avalanche Photodetectors Sold Above (Except Item # APD210)
  • ±12 VDC Power Output
  • Current Limit Enabling Short Circuit and Overload Protection
  • On/Off Switch with LED Indicator
  • Switchable AC Input Voltage (100, 120, or 230 VAC)
  • 2 m (6.6 ft) Cable with LUMBERG RSMV3 Male Connector
  • UL and CE Compliant

The LDS12B ±12 VDC Regulated Linear Power Supply is intended as a replacement for the supply included with our APD series of avalanche photodetectors sold on this page, except for the APD210 photodetector. The cord has three pins: one for ground, one for +12 V, and one for -12 V (see diagram above). This power supply ships with a location-specific power cord. This power supply can also be used with the PDA series of amplified photodetectors, PDB series of balanced photodetectors, PMM series of photomultiplier modules, and the FSAC autocorrelator for femtosecond lasers.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available
LDS12B Support Documentation
LDS12B±12 VDC Regulated Linear Power Supply, 6 W, 100/120/230 VAC
$85.22
Today

Internally SM1-Threaded Fiber Adapters

  • Internally SM1-Threaded (1.035"-40) Disks with FC/PC, FC/APC, SMA, ST/PC, SC/PC, or LC/PC Receptacle
  • Light-Tight Construction when used with SM1 Lens Tubes
  • Compatible with Many of Our Photodiode Power Sensors

The APC adapter has two dimples in the front surface that allow it to be tightened with the SPW909 or SPW801 spanner wrench. The dimples do not go all the way through the disk so that the adapter can be used in light-tight applications when paired with SM1 lens tubes.

Item # S120-FC S120-APCa S120-SMA S120-ST S120-SC S120-LC
Adapter Image
(Click the Image
to Enlarge)
S120-FC S120-APC S120-SMA S120-ST S120-SC S120-LC
Connector Type FC/PCb,c FC/APCc SMA ST/PC SC/PCd LC/PC
Threading Internal SM1 (1.035"-40)
  • The S120-APC is designed with a 4° mechanical angle to compensate for the refraction angle of the output beam.
  • In certain angle-independent applications, this adapter may also be used with FC/APC connectors.
  • This connector uses a wide key (2.2 mm).
  • In certain angle-independent applications, this adapter may also be used with SC/APC connectors.
Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available
S120-FC Support Documentation
S120-FCFC/PC Fiber Adapter Cap with Internal SM1 (1.035"-40) Threads
$42.20
Today
S120-APC Support Documentation
S120-APCCustomer Inspired! FC/APC Fiber Adapter Cap with Internal SM1 (1.035"-40) Threads
$32.96
Today
S120-LC Support Documentation
S120-LCLC/PC Fiber Adapter Cap with Internal SM1 (1.035"-40) Threads
$53.02
Today
S120-SC Support Documentation
S120-SCSC/PC Fiber Adapter Cap with Internal SM1 (1.035"-40) Threads
$53.02
Today
S120-SMA Support Documentation
S120-SMASMA Fiber Adapter Cap with Internal SM1 (1.035"-40) Threads
$42.20
Today
S120-ST Support Documentation
S120-STST/PC Fiber Adapter Cap with Internal SM1 (1.035"-40) Threads
$42.20
Today
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